15ai Summarise the key strengths and limitations of the three main approaches to counselling. (AC 1.2)

Humanistic theory - Strengths:

Humanistic theory – Strengths:

The main strength of the humanistic theory is that it set the individual at a core. The theory is not judgmental. This theory puts an individual as the person with uniqueness take into consideration of personal values and individual self-fulfillment. Patients experience empathy gather unconditional positive regard. New positive beliefs are congruent.

15aii Limitation:

This approach assumes that people are intrinsically good. Generalization about human-human good nature and ignorance to behaviorist and psychoanalytic concepts is main limitation of this protocol. In severe cases, this approach may not be appropriate.

15bi Psychodynamic theory – Strengths:

It accounts for the childhood to adult personality and mental health. Theory explores the motivation of behaviors and helps to understand the influence of childhood experiences on later development.

15bii Limitation:

Put too much attention on psychological constraints. Do not consider inherited factors as genetic, do not take under consideration how those critical factors may influence the patient’s case. The method is deterministic and often ignores the mediational process. Metode seems to be unfalsifiable.

15ci Cognitive Behavioural Theory – Strengths:

The effectiveness of CBT may be compared to the results of pharmacology in some cases. CBT is backed by scientific literature is replicable and measurable. Can be used in many patient cases and take a relatively short period of time compared to other methods. CBT helps individuals to overcome issues currently experienced. CBT focus on individual patient cases. CBT is also cost-effective approach. Various psychological CBT protocols may be used in practice.

15cii Limitation:

The role of the cognitive process is not clearly determinated. CBT may be assessed as an intrusive method and aim to change patient thoughts and believes. Sometimes the process of CBT may proceed in a forceful way. Persuasion used in CBT may be recognized as unethical.

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