Publikacja książki mojej pierwszej książki…

ONE MAN ARMY

Człowiek orkiestra

Jeżeli któraś z tych fraz jest w Twoim sercu jesteś o krok od realizacji własnych marzeń! Świat Twoich fantazji zamieni się w twardą rzeczywistość. Zapraszam Cię w podróż w której podzielę się całą swoją wiedzą z zakresu reklamy. Będę dryfował z Tobą dopingując aby Twój portfel pękał w szwach od napływających banknotów!

Jak precyzyjnie trafić do klientów z miejscowości miasta powiatu województwa?

Chcesz aby Twoje produkty sprzedawały się świetnie? Zależy Ci na tym aby dotrzeć do

Jak największej grupy odbiorców? A może Twój cel to poinformowanie o swojej ofercie wyselekcjonowanej grupy osób?

Korzystając z zawartych tu informacji szybko i skutecznie zaplanujesz swoją kampanię reklamową. Dzięki tej publikacji poznasz różnorodne nowatorskie formy reklamy, które z pewnością dodadzą blasku Twojej działalności. Dowiesz się jakie są najniższe koszty wykonania danej usługi reklamowej. Jeżeli zamierzasz skorzystać z usług agencji reklamowej to po lekturze tej publikacji będziesz miał gotowy zestaw atrybutów który umożliwi Ci wynegocjować atrakcyjne warunki współpracy. A co najważniejsze… dowiesz się ile pieniędzy będziesz musiał zainwestować aby Twoja działalność odniosła komercyjny sukces!

Cały poradnik jest skonstruowany w taki sposób aby możliwie minimalnym kosztem finansowym wdrożyć przedsięwzięcie które będzie komercyjnym sukcesem. Brak nakładów finansowych będą dla Ciebie oznaczały konieczność asymilacji dużej ilości wiedzy. Ta książka to odkłamujący poradnik. Bez sztucznych wypełniaczy zbędnych dodatków smakowych. Esencja stojąca za karmazynowa kurtyną reklamy zostanie ci podana jak kawa z ekspresu. Bez słodzenia. BEZ PATO! Czysty cierpki smak prawdy. Jeżeli chcesz postawić własną firmę na nogi w możliwie najkrótszym czasie dobrze trafiłeś! Myślisz o własnej agencji reklamowej? Jedziemy!

O autorze od autora: Drodzy czytelnicy przez lata z przyjemnością dzieliłem się swoją wiedzą i doświadczeniem ze wszystkimi którzy tylko chcieli słuchać. Mam ogromną satysfakcję i nieukrywaną przyjemność pisać dla Was tę książkę. Minęło kilkanaście lat od chwili w której rozpocząłem ten projekt. W tym materiale dowiesz się o wszystkich najskuteczniejszych strategiach reklamowych marketingowych które miałem przyjemność opracowywać, wdrażać, nadzorować, opracowywać… Jeżeli jesteś spłukany… ale za to dysponujesz czasem to korzystając z tego kompleksowego poradnika finansowo staniesz na nogi! Nie wydarzy się to z dnia na dzień. Cały proces zajmie dużo więcej czasu. Trzymanie się założeń jest kluczowe do tego abyś osiągnął sukces. Systematyka jest ważna. Więc każdego dnia po jednym pojedynczym kroku do celu. W tym poradniku nie będziemy wyważali otwartych drzwi. Wybierzemy się ścieżką gotowych istniejących rozwiązań które zaimplementujesz. Ogromną trudnością dla młodych adeptów reklamy jest nawigacja w gąszczu informacji. Nie będzie fejkniusów zobaczysz jak reklama działa od kuchni. W każdej chwili będę służył Ci pomocą referencjami w tym materiałami do youtube gdzie w przystępny sposób będziesz mógł zobaczyć jak podejść do zagadnienia!

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Notes according to research – MIX

One Danish survey by Gunther Eysenbach (2007) found that the online survey received a 6% higher response rate than its classic paper counterpart. I completely agree with the thesis that online surveys are an effective form of gathering data from the target group.

Assumptions that online surveys can significantly compete and even outclass their paper counterparts. Although pencil surveys probably always will be an emergency solution according to Carlos Mendes (2018). in In this essay, I will mainly consider the workload that the researcher spends on preparing the survey and the potential benefits. Arguments such as conversion from a survey, calculated by the respondent’s response rate, are paramount. Time and subsidized measures are important factor. The researchers (Kenny, 2005) & (Burdock, 2005) in their works came to the same conclusion that online surveys are characterized by a significantly lower cost of obtaining respondents’ answers than their paper versions. (Barker cited in J. McDonald 2015) stated that the use of online surveys in large-scale quantitative research is an alternative. However, he pointed out that it is worth securing research using two simultaneously available methods, giving the respondents a choice of suitable forms. Also (Burdock, cited in Eysenbach 2007), pointed to the rightness of choosing online surveys as those that reduce the cost of conducted research. Time act a critical role in many studies. Three scientists C. Mendes (2018) & Jim McDonald and Claudia Richardson (2015) agree that online surveys are ahead of paper surveys when it comes to getting respondents’ answers. Surveys published via a link sent by e-mail or published on social networking sites receive immediate results. Speed, flexibility, and accessibility of online surveys is certainly their greatest advantage. There are many more positives Carlos Mendes (2018) articulated that immediate and pre-analyzed results obtained in real-time, obtained thanks to specialized software, make online surveys superior to paper surveys.

Jedno z dunskich badań ankietowych przeprowadzonych przez Gunther Eysenbach (2007), wykazało iż ankieta online uzyskała o 6% wyższy odsetek odpowiedzi niż jej klasyczny papierowy odpowiednik. Całkowicie zgadzam się z tezą iż ankiety przeprowadzone online odznaczają się wysoką skutecznością w porównianiu do ich protoplastów.

W pierwszej kolejności skupmy się na walidacji założen że ankiety online mogą w sposób znaczący konkurować a nawet deklasować ich papierowe odpowiedniki. W tym eseju w głównej mierze będę brał pod uwagę nakład pracy jaki badacz wydatkuje na przygotowanie ankiety oraz potencjalne benefity. Argumenty takie jak konwersja z ankiety liczona współczynnikiem odpowiedzi respondentów jest wartością nadrzędną. Istotnym współczynnikiem jest czas oraz subsydiowane środki.

Zacznijmy od argumentu księgowego jakim są pieniądze.

‘In the modern era, online questionnaires are much more effective than the traditional paper versions. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
According to Gunther Eysenbach (2007), One of the Danish surveys reveal 6% higher response rate in online surveys versus classic paper-pen questionnaires. Online survayes can be beneficial both for paricipants and those who conduct research. I completely agree with formulated statement. Aim of article is to convince reader that online questionaries are more effective compare to old fassion paper questionaries.

Before we move to meritum it must be stated clearly that both online and classic surveys screening methods are almost the same. The main difference is a channel of communication, the way how the survey dish is served. Online surveys usually, do home delivery. With the classic one, we send a survey by post injecting trojan horses into participant’s mailbox. Moreover, we try to force him to participant in our dirty experiment, and if we succeed… Then, our victim will even pay for post stamp just to send us our highly desirable results. Sound ridiculous? Let’s pull out all of the advantages of online questionaries and rebut old fashion paper ones. In pandemic reality we can forget about other forms of screening. We are forced to use online questionaries. Govermenant accuse us for biotherrorism just becouse we did not wear face mask

Firstly let’s consider the most valuable resources like time and costs. (Kenny, 2005) & (Burdock, 2005) pointed out that online survey questionaries reveal that virtual surveys have significantly lower costs per gather data. Barker, 2013 claimed that resign from paper questionnaires is temptation for researches however both type of questionary may be used if there is reason to do it. Timing play important role for success in any kind of research. Execute research project on social media platforms and mail may be done in minutes versus days in classic paper questionarriess. Gathering data and valuating answers in real time is beneficial and more convince than waiting for participants answers. . C. Mendes (2018) & Jim McDonald and Claudia Richardson (2015). In current COVID-19 reality option of executing classic type survey may be questionableThose data can be processed in real time by software and present clear results Carlos Mendes (2018). Lack of those tools and necessity to gather it is main disadvantage of paper based questionnaires.

Identify the target audience preferences and limitation are crucial to chosse appropiate questionary formula. There are two most popular options online questionaris and other one classic pencil-paper survays. The last metode seems to be extint spoon

questionnaires but the opposite has also been reported (Pavlov & Kane, 2006).

Target audience and delivery methode should be first concern what type of survey to choose. However designing questionary in p

Online questionary can
both for participents and for researches. The most

Unormous benefict both for participents and researches indicate on beneficial role

Web-based questionnaires have been shown to lower data collection costs (Burdock, 2005)

Carlos Mendes (2018)
Expanding role of internet change the methods how we can gather data from our participants.

Carlos Mendes (2018) pointed out that we should consider the paper survey questionery for people visually impaired. In some cases it may be a solution. The facts are that well prepared online survey can resolve this issue. Text to speech systems are wide available and can be adopted to read out all of the survey content even our participant is blind. Paper have tendency to keep silent. Computer or smartphone can read laud the content and help with navigation. Carlos Mendes (2018) insinuate that for vision impaired people physical questionary may be better solution. Common sense tell us that we should chose the tools appropriate to our sample group. Almost each today computer offer “high contrast option” or “invert option” in order to maxymalise reading. Also the font can be zoom without any effort providing even single word on our screen. Metioned previously ‘text to speech’ metodes are common tools for people visually impaired or blind. Paper have no ability to scale the font electronic devices do. If we have participant impaired in this kind of way we should provide different communication channel telephonic survey. Idea that we can prepared better questionary for visual impaired person and those kind of questionery can be better than survey prepared seems to be disscusable. Role of researcher should be gather data and overcome any potential obstacles participant can face. For visually impaired person appropriate metode is to provide audiotory aid like a part of classic survey.
Dissadvantyges of paper based survey for researches are profound. Answers on papers sheet may be not easy to read. Therefore survey processing time may harass final results. Open ended question are valuable source of information under condition that we can read it. Results usually are input to spread scheet.

Online survey provide list of multiple tracable benefits both for researcher and for participents.

Paper survey have their benefits in the case when the researcher was granted by government subvention.
Carfull planning is vital important for success of any reasarch

Gathering data can be
Conducting paper survey is almost not possible in pandemic culture. Finding sample group of our participents and get their contact data according to British law is almost not possible for non-profit researcher. Compliaing with Data Protection Act and understanding issues associated with purchasing desire database is multilevel process.

Con
. For example, as Halestorm (2012) identifies, if one is conducting research on patients in assisted living facilities with a target population of seniors with little to no access to computers, paper surveys are necessary. Additionally, respondents in rural, remote locations may have online accessibility issues. In short, examine your target population carefully.

The response rates in most studies so far, however, have been reported to be lower in Web-based questionnaires than in paper-based questionnaires (Kenny, 2005),

Researcher should find the most beneficial method allowing to gather the data from participants. In modern time increasing role of conducting surveys online. Online surveys can be beneficial in many ways compere to classic paper questionaries. The most obvious advantages for researchers is efficiency in gathering data and ease with analysis. Some of online scripts have prebuild futures help to present survey result without any additional afford. Online questionaries can have interactive form and may contain audiovisual aid to engage participant. Rapid distribution and ease with reaching target group is undeniable advantegous of online research. Halestorm (2012) claim the main argument against conducting research online versus classic paper is limited access to internet. However, in 2021 most of people are coveraged by mobile network smartphones become popular and each person can answer on survey if they will to. Quantity of people IT impaired will systematicly decrease even in seniors demographic group. (Barker, 2013)
Online survays provide real time tools not available in paper form Kenny, 2005) ha

Too sumarise. Online survayes have numerous advantyges both for researchers and participents. Environmental issues definitely favor online survays thus they do not requaied paper and avoid unnessesery waste. Access to internet smartphones and computers constant spread. Intergenerational tendency to use technology from early childhood is not a trend is a fact. Conceptions like satellite internet is not longer Sciance Fiction screenplay those satelites already fly over our heads. Halestorm (2012) pointed out that lack access to internet in rural areas should be consider as a threat for online survays. This statement expired like many other ideas in our internet reality. Under those circumstances owever young adolescence may one day learn from history books what was paper never holding even scrap of this material in hand.

(Pavlov & Kane, 2006) argue that mixed-types both online and classic survey can be adopt in some of cases.
Pre analysis of data

Relative ease with distribution and reaching target group is main benefit of online survays. There are no limitation to prepare the same kind of survey both online and in classic form.
Carlos Mendes (2018)

There are not common agreement what type of survay can provide better
There are many counterarguments

Each method have their futures and limitations. The most obvious one is that we can not

Introduction.
Survay

Text 1 – Carlos Mendes (2018) Research Methods for Under-Graduate Students, p.69

When the concept of speed is considered, paper surveys are notorious for taking a good amount of time to execute. Whether administration is in-person, mailed, or sent as an email attachment, speed is always going to be a factor. Time for the respondent to complete the survey and time to mail it back is going to increase the time needed to complete the survey research process. Online Surveys, however, can collect data in very little time. With many online survey software solutions, creating these is simple and can be administered to your population via email or social media networks within minutes. Due to this rapid distribution, your sample population can respond almost immediately, and data is collected automatically. Online survey software also has more advanced logic features that are not available in paper surveys and in this way, allow much more flexibility. Although paper-based surveys certainly still have their place in survey research, and always will, continued advances in technology may increasingly diminish that demand.

Text 2 – Jim McDonald and Claudia Richardson (2015) A Mixed Model Approach, p.22

While there are many issues to consider when planning a quantitative research project, the needs of the population should be the main consideration. The target participants may prefer just online surveys or just paper surveys, and sometimes there may be a need for a mixed-mode for a diverse population (Barker, 2013). This means both paper and online surveys for the same survey research project. The appeal of saving money with online surveys is tempting, but if that survey is not reaching a target audience that prefers a paper survey, the researcher many be wasting their time and efforts. Non-tech savvy respondents may not have access to a computer and therefore not have access to the Internet to complete an online survey via email or on social media networks. For example, as Halestorm (2012) identifies, if one is conducting research on patients in assisted living facilities with a target population of seniors with little to no access to computers, paper surveys are necessary. Additionally, respondents in rural, remote locations may have online accessibility issues.
Text 3 – Gunther Eysenbach (2007) Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires, p.1

Web-based questionnaires have been shown to lower data collection costs (Burdock, 2005), which is attractive especially in large population-based surveys. The response rates in most studies so far, however, have been reported to be lower in Web-based questionnaires than in paper-based questionnaires (Kenny, 2005), but the opposite has also been reported (Pavlov & Kane, 2006). In a questionnaire survey on patients’ experiences with cancer care, no significant difference was observed between the response rates of a mailed paper questionnaire only (64.0%) and those of an online questionnaire followed by a paper reminder (60.5%). A Danish questionnaire survey reported a statistically significantly higher total response rate in a paper-and-pencil group (76.5%) than in a group with access to the questionnaire via log-on to the Internet (64.2%). A study comparing mixed-mode (paper or online) and Web-based questionnaires exploring fertility issues among female childhood cancer survivors found a 6% higher participation rate in the Web-based mode (89%) than in the mixed mode (83%).
**

same. The main difference is a channel of communication, the way how the survey dish is served. Online surveys usually, do home delivery. With the classic one, we send a survey by post injecting trojan horses into participant’s mailbox. Moreover, we try to force him to participant in our dirty experiment, and if we succeed… Then, our victim will even pay for post stamp just to send us our highly desirable results. Sound ridiculous? Let’s pull out all of the advantages of online questionaries and rebut old fashion paper ones. In pandemic reality we can forget about other forms of screening. We are forced to use online questionaries. Govermenant accuse us for biotherrorism just becouse we did not wear face mask

One Danish survey by Gunther Eysenbach (2007) found that the online survey received a 6% higher response rate than its classic paper counterpart. I completely agree with the thesis that online surveys are highly effective compared to their ancestors.

First, let’s focus on validating the assumptions that online surveys can significantly compete and even outclass their paper counterparts. In this essay, I will mainly consider the workload that the researcher spends on preparing the survey and the potential benefits. Arguments such as conversion from a survey, calculated by the respondent’s response rate, are paramount. Time and subsidized measures are an important factor. The researchers (Kenny, 2005) & (Burdock, 2005) in their works came to the same conclusion that online surveys are characterized by a significantly lower cost of obtaining respondents’ data than their paper versions. Barker, 2013 cited in J. McDonald (2015) stated that the use of online surveys in large-scale quantitative research is a significant alternative, however, it is worth securing research using two simultaneously available methods, giving the respondents a choice of a suitable form. Also (Burdock, 2005), quoted in Gunther Eysenbach (2007), pointed to the rightness of choosing online surveys as those that reduce the cost of conducted research.

Jedno z dunskich badań ankietowych przeprowadzonych przez Gunther Eysenbach (2007), wykazało iż ankieta online uzyskała o 6% wyższy odsetek odpowiedzi niż jej klasyczny papierowy odpowiednik. Całkowicie zgadzam się z tezą iż ankiety przeprowadzone online odznaczają się wysoką skutecznością w porównianiu do ich protoplastów.

W pierwszej kolejności skupmy się na walidacji założen że ankiety online mogą w sposób znaczący konkurować a nawet deklasować ich papierowe odpowiedniki. W tym eseju w głównej mierze będę brał pod uwagę nakład pracy jaki badacz wydatkuje na przygotowanie ankiety oraz potencjalne benefity. Argumenty takie jak konwersja z ankiety liczona współczynnikiem odpowiedzi respondentów jest wartością nadrzędną. Istotnym współczynnikiem jest czas oraz subsydiowane środki. Badacze (Kenny, 2005) & (Burdock, 2005) w swoich pracach doszli do tożsamej konkluzji iż ankiety online odznaczają się znacząco niższym kosztem pozyskania danych respondentów niż ich papierowe wersje. Barker, 2013 cited in J. McDonald (2015) określił że użycie ankiet online w szeroko zakrojonych badaniach ilościowch jest istotną alternatywą jednakże asekuracyjnie warto zabezpieczyć badania za pomocą dwóch symultanicznie dostępnych metod dając osobom badanym wybór dogodnej formy. Także (Burdock, 2005) cytowany w Gunther Eysenbach (2007) wskazał na słuszność wyboru ankiet online jako tychy które obniżają koszty przeprowadzonych badan. Czas w wielu badaniach odgrywa krytyczną rolę. Trójka naukowców C. Mendes (2018) & Jim McDonald and Claudia Richardson (2015) jest zgodna co do tego iż internetowe ankiety wyprzedzają ich papierowe wersje w zakresie uzyskiwania odpowiedzi respondentów. Ankiety opublikowane za pomocą linka wysłane mailem lub też opublikowane na stronach portali społecznościowych otrzymują natychmiastowe wyniki. Szybkość, elastyczność, oraz docieralność ankiet internetowych jest z pewnością ich największym zaletą. Pozytwów jest znacznie więcej Carlos Mendes (2018) wyartykułował iż natychmiastowe i preanalizowane wyniki otrzymywane w czasie rzeczywistym otrzymywane dzięki wyspecjalizowanyemu oprogramowaniu stanowią o wyższości ankiet online nad papierowymi.

One Danish survey by Gunther Eysenbach (2007) found that the online survey received a 6% higher response rate than its classic paper counterpart. I completely agree with the thesis that online surveys are highly effective compared to their ancestors.

First, let’s focus on validating the assumptions that online surveys can significantly compete and even outclass their paper counterparts. In this essay, I will mainly consider the workload that the researcher spends on preparing the survey and the potential benefits. Arguments such as conversion from a survey, calculated by the respondent’s response rate, are paramount. Time and subsidized measures are an important factor. The researchers (Kenny, 2005) & (Burdock, 2005) in their works came to the same conclusion that online surveys are characterized by a significantly lower cost of obtaining respondents’ data than their paper versions. Barker, 2013 cited in J. McDonald (2015) stated that the use of online surveys in large-scale quantitative research is a significant alternative, however, it is worth securing research using two simultaneously available methods, giving the respondents a choice of a suitable form. Also (Burdock, 2005), quoted in Gunther Eysenbach (2007), pointed to the rightness of choosing online surveys as those that reduce the cost of conducted research. Time plays a critical role in many studies. Three scientists C. Mendes (2018) & Jim McDonald and Claudia Richardson (2015) agree that online surveys are ahead of paper surveys when it comes to getting respondents’ answers. Surveys published via a link sent by e-mail or published on social networking sites receive immediate results. Speed, flexibility and accessibility of online surveys is certainly their greatest advantage. There are many more positives Carlos Mendes (2018) articulated that immediate and preanalyzed results obtained in real time, obtained thanks to specialized software, make online surveys superior to paper surveys.

Research is the process of design and conduct analysis to validate claims. The most popular Oxford English Dictionary defines the word in the context of gathering information from participants like a series of questions. Although the short explanation does not explore wider context it how complexity influences that word. Questionaries are structured to obtain quantitative and qualitative results (Creswell, 2008). Zegret et al. (2016) pointed out that those documents may have different purposes and goals. Research activities are associated with university faculties; business & social science according to (Dingle, 2019). Expanding role of the internet become a threat for classic paper questionaries. However, each method has their futures. Part of each research is investigation ideas making observations validating novel theories and concepts. The process of study research itself is named meta-research. Research is the wide interdisciplinary conception of validating scientific claims.

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Disstractions… Essay

According to McCoy (2016), 97% of students use their devices during lectures for other purposes than learning. The aim of the essay is to summarize recorded lecture about digital distractions and provide an overview for those individuals who are affected. Access to digital devices with access to the internet is common. The boon of technology does have a significant negative impact on those who are not conscious of how addictive it can be. Students provide multiple excuses to explain why the device is essential. However, the real issue is not allocated in devices rather in the way how we interact with them. Cure can be administered only if addicted students understand the process of susceptibility. Therefore, behavior can be corrected. Digital distraction can be managed but the consciousness of existing hidden influence. It is the first step to find and organize an action plan in order to find a satisfactory solution. Distracted students have multiple excuses to interact with the screen rather than focus on lectures. The obvious argumentation is that they must stay connected. Despite student reasons, facts indicate to obsessive-compulsive importunity. Unconscious addiction is the main coefficient of behavior. Difficulty to focus attention during lectures is the result of constant usages of technology. Goleman pointed out that skill to focus is even more important than a high IQ. The ability to focus can predict and determine academic success. Use smartphones during lectures is a common behavior. The myth of multitasking is a legend for that student who rationalizes smartphone usage during lectures. The ability to multitasking is impossible for human entities. However, multitasking is partially true. We can focus our attention on one activity then swap to other. Self-regulating techniques are the first step to increase focus and decrease distractions. Distraction management should be a procedure worth consideration. The easiest solution to avoid digital distraction is removing the cause. Furthermore, it can be difficult. Notification interruption is just to turn it off Mavridi (2018). If students must have their smartphone the airplane function may be a wise solution.

Then appropriate plan may be self-administrated. Moreover, additional aid may be necessary to increase the chances of avoiding distractions. Good advice is the procedure of deactivation of all notifications on our devices during the learning process. Removal of temptation is crucial. Creating barriers remove stimulus will decrease the chance of pick up smartphones compulsively.

In conclusion, the constant development of technology is a cause of new previously unknown intrusion habits. Self-regulating techniques may provide recognition of potentially harmful behaviors. Realizing the potential harmfulness of using technology is the first step in turning negative habits into conscious self-regulating activities. Adopting unwritten cultural digital norms of netiquette is compulsory for those who aspire to academic careers. Previously unknown, digital courtesy rituals seem to be a new age savoir vivre.

References:

McCoy, B. (2016) Digital Distractions in the Classroom: Student Classroom Use of Digital Devices for Non-Class Related Purposes, Faculty publications, College of Journalism & Mass Communications. Paper 90, (Accessed: 11.05.2021).

Mavridi, S. (2018) ‘Managing digital distractions in class and beyond’ [Recorded lecture]. LIPCF133_2021_503: Study Skills 3. De Montfort University. 10 April. Available at resource: URL (Accessed: 11.05.2021).


ASSIGNMENT CHECKLIST
Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module: STUDY SKILLS 3: COMMUNICATION SKILLS (TERM 3)
Module code: LIPCF133_2021_503
Assignment: LECTURE SUMMARY 2; Write a summary based on the lecture notes that you took during the guest lecture – ‘Managing digital distractions in class and beyond’.

Task Requirements
I have completed this cover sheet and checklist and attached it to my essay.
I have checked the brief carefully to ensure I have followed all the instructions.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.
I have written between 450 and 550 words.

Content
My introduction identifies the aims of the lecture and the main points covered.
The main body summarises the content of the lecture.
I have not included any minor details from the lecture, or any information that was not part of the lecture.

Referencing and Paraphrasing
I have referenced all sources, including the lecture itself, both in-text and in a reference list.
I have checked that my referencing style matches the Cite Them Right Harvard referencing guide (available on Blackboard, in the Academic Referencing folder).
I have paraphrased language from the lecturer’s Powerpoint slides and speech.

Writing style
I have checked my work for any errors with academic style.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.

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Synthesis & purification of paracetamol.

Synthesis analysis and purification of paracetamol.

Reagents

Table no. 1 Reagents list:
4-aminophenol (g)2.20
Acetic anhydride (ml)2.20
Propanone (acetone) (ml)20.00
Commercial paracetamol, 2 tablets (g)3.43
Ethyl acetate C4H8O210
Petroleum ether (ml)1

Aims

The aim of the experiment is to synthesize paracetamol in the control laboratory environment. Purification, Recrystallization, and comparison of synthesized sample to commercial brand paracetamol. Confirming of obtained substance by assessing melting point. Verification of purity based on Thin Layer Chromatography TLC. Reaffirmation that samples contain paracetamol will be conducted by Infra-Red spectroscopy IR. To validate results three different assay techniques were adopted. IR spectra. TLC paper chromatography. The range of melting point was observed. The purity of the product is confirmed by melting point and by comparison to industry literature.

The reaction of 4-aminophenol with acetyl anhydride is conducted the final product will include paracetamol and acetic acid. The reaction is divide into two main steps the first one is addition second elimination. The amide bond is formed in paracetamol and the by-product ethanoic acid.

Results

The exact mass of 4-aminophenol used as reagent equal 2.20g

Mass of recrystallized purified paracetamol equal 0.82g

Reaction

Graphic no. 1

C6H7NO + C4H6O= C8H9NO+ CH3COOH

4-Aminophenol acetic anhydride paracetamol acetic acid

Ratio 4-aminophenol to acetic anhydride is 1:1

Weight of 4-Aminophenol used to reaction equal 2,20g.

Molar mass of 4-Aminophenol equal 109.128 g/mol.

n(C6H7NO)= 0.0202 mol

Volume of acetic anhydride equal 2.2ml

Volume of acetic anhydride = 0,0022dm3

Density of acetic anhydride = 1,08g/ml

Molar mass of acetic anhydride equal 102.089 g/mol.

Mass=Volume*Density

mass(C4H6O3)= 2.2ml *1,08g/ml

mass(C4H6O3)= 2,376g

n(C4H6O3)= 0.0233 mol

C6H7NO : C4H6O3

Ratio 1:1

0.0202mol : 0.0233mol

4-Aminophenol is a limiting reagent Thus, has lower moles compare to acetic anhydride.

Acetic anhydride is an excess reagent.

Theoretical and actual yield calculations evaluation is based on limiting reagent. In this case, the limiting reagent is 4-Aminophenol observing the reaction it is concluded that the ratio 4-Aminophenol to paracetamol is 1:1 Therefore, n(4-Aminophenol) =n(paracetamol).

Theoretical Yield for paracetamol

Acetaminophen molar mass = 151.165 g/mol

Theoretical Yield = moles of acetaminophen * molar mass of acetaminophen

                         = 0.0202mol x 151.165/mol

                         = 3,0535 g

Actual yield of paracetamol = 0,82g

Actual Yield obtained in experiment.

Actual Percent Yield =          Actual Yield        x 100%

                             Theoretical Yield

                     =            0,82 g      x 100 %

                                  3,0535g

                     =  26,85 %

Atom economy (Atom utilization)

atom economy =     (Relative formula mass of paracetamol) * 100%

                             (Sum of relative formula masses of reactants)

atom economy =    (paracetamol) * 100%

                             Mr(4-Aminophenol)+ Mr(acetic anhydride)

atom economy =    151.165 * 100%

                             109.128 + 102.089

atom economy =    151.165 * 100%

  109.128 + 102.089

atom economy =    71,56 %

Melting point

Sample of synthesized paracetamol was observed through the melting process, first visible liquid drop starts at 170°C and finishes at 179°C. Commercial paracetamol start melts at 176°C and finalized at 179°C.

The matching range of substance melting points may be used as a purity indicator. Comparison melting points to scientific articles is a way to ensure the purity of the synthesized substances. Contaminations or impurities in the sample will lower the melting point. Impurities in the sample will lead to extending the range when solid will change the state of aggregation to liquid. Based on this indicator experiment reveal that synthesized paracetamol contains undesired contamination. However, Bashpa et al. (2014) pointed out that the pure paracetamol melting point is 169°C. Conducted examination of 11 brands of paracetamol tablets fit in and coincide with the experimentally obtained melting results.

(IR) Infra-Red Spectrograph

IR Spectogram of paracetamol.

Paracetamol’s bonds interfere with the infrared light spectrum. IR sensors detect the energies of compound bonds. Analysis of obtained data aid to determine the type of bonds in the molecule Therefore, functional groups are marked as present in the molecule. IR spectrogram no. 1 represent reference spectrogram for pure paracetamol. The second chart reveals spectra for commercial brand tablets. The third one shows sample obtain in the laboratory. Visual investigation of charts leads to the conclusion that all examined samples contain paracetamol. Furthermore, Table no. 3 provides pieces of evidence for characteristic peaks and stretches.

Table no. 3 IR Spectrogram
IR spectrum Wavenumbers(cm-1)Functional group deduced.
3319N-H
3300O-H
1650C=O
1504C-C (aromatic)
1434C-C
3090C-H
1600C=C
Bonding pairs paracetamol molecule.

The presence of all these peaks leads to the conclusion that the obtained product is paracetamol. In addition, excellent similarities are clearly notable.

TLC Chromatography

Data gathered from Chromatogram no. 1 was used to calculate the Rf value. Synthesized paracetamol and its commercial brand equivalent are equal and have Rf = 0,44. No additional spots on their bar chart indicate about potentially high purity of both substances. Interesting results three different spots were observed for acetic anhydride. However, those contaminations may be the result of hydrolysis of acetic anhydride. Although, recrystallization of paracetamol and the purification process was conducted appropriately for both paracetamol samples.

Type of substanceDistance traveled in cmDistance to solventfrontDistance to solvent front in cmRValue
4-aminophenol C6H7NO3,56,40,54
acetic anhydride2,4 / 3,5 / 5,66,40,37 / 0,54 / 0,87
synthesized paracetamol2,86,40,44
commercial brand paracetamol.2,86,40,44
Paracetamol chromatogram. 4-aminophenol chromatogram.

Analysis

Hand draw no. 1 present reaction and explanation of processes of addition & elimination in the aqueous solution of acetic anhydride and 4-aminophenol. The explanation why reaction required heat to occurs. Srabovic et. al. (2017) pointed out about solubility of 4-aminophenol in cold water. To obtain high yield solution is heated to approximately 90 degrees of C. 4-aminophenol dissolve successfully in water. Skip the step of heating solution will decrease the yield of paracetamol. Potential reagents contaminations and impurities dissolved in water. In process of the cooling solution when paracetamol crystals start to form significant numbers of contaminations stay in liquid. Therefore, the crystal form of the final product is purified & highly desirable. After the heating solution was cooled. The suspension was filtered by vacuum. Finally, the residue was flushed by cold water and left until water vaporized. Mass of paracetamol crystals was noted. To eliminate all residue contaminations the process of recrystallization was adopted. According to Srabovic et. al. (2017), paracetamol is insoluble in cold water. The mixture was heated and paracetamol dissolve. The solution was cooled down until reach room temperature. Cold paracetamol starts to crystallize. Vacuum flow and paper filter aid help to finish the process. The mass of paracetamol was noticed.

Errors

Each experiment is prone to external environmental conditions. Moreover, those conditions may negatively impact experiment accuracy and to final results obtained. On the first plan, hygroscopic properties of acetic anhydride should be considered. According to Chromatogram no.1 is visible that there are three different spots marked. Water presented in air interreact with acetic anhydride and therefore acetic anhydride hydrolyze. (CH3CO)2O + H2O → 2 CH3CO2H Concentration of acetic anhydride may be a matter of discussion. Acetic anhydride dissolves in water to approximately 2.6% of the mass. Each operation with liquid is prone to misreading burette and for incorrect addition of volume. It must be noticed that process of vacuuming starts rapidly. Uncounted mass of substance was lost in a process. Manifold with digital pressure valve to control airflow should be beneficial and will avoid further disappointment. It is recommended to wet paper filters to get a better grip between vacuumed substance and patch potential air leaks around. In general filtration, suction, as well as lack of researcher experience are major causes of errors.

Recommendations and suggestions

-accuracy and precision with weighting measuring and moving product.

-the slower process of crystallization

-decrease the volume of solvent required to wash residue to a minimum

-decrease the suction in vacuum pump

Conclusion

To conclude all of the mentioned pieces of evidence lead to formulating a statement that the synthesized product is definitely paracetamol. Determined melting ranges were matched to literature. IR spectrogram’s and TLC chromatogram’s results confirmed that the gathered product is paracetamol. Relatively low yield gathered 26.85%. High purity was gained despite the potential contamination of excess reagent. Purity and structure of molecule proven by three assay techniques simultaneously. TLC chromatograph does not show impurities in samples. The melting point for both samples of paracetamol is comparable with professional chemistry literature. IR spectra for both samples of paracetamol matched perfectly according to the paramount pure paracetamol source chart model obtained from IR device. Comparison to literature Bashpa et al. (2014), 11 commercial brands of paracetamol obtained similar melting points. To consideration should be taken the relatively too fast process of paracetamol crystallization. Extend the period of crystallization may be beneficial for yield. The calculated atom economy of 71.56% for the reaction is satisfactory. The method of synthesis paracetamol pointed out in this report should be taken into consideration. To summarise, take into consideration all listed issues as well as adopting mentioned recommendations will significantly improve further yields.

References

Bashpa et al. (2014) ‘Polymorphism of paracetamol: A comparative study on commercial paracetamol samples.’, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 1 (No. 6), pp. [Online]. Available at: https://www.chemijournal.com/vol1Issue6/april2014/3.1.pdf (Accessed: 27.05.2021).

Srabovic et al. (January 2017) ‘Design synthesis and crystallization of acetaminophen’, Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 7(1), pp. 218-230 [Online]. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Samra-Muratovic/publication/312848234_Design_synthesis_and_crystallization_of_acetaminophen/links/588a25a3a6fdccb538f1efe5/Design-synthesis-and-crystallization-of-acetaminophen.pdf (Accessed: 27.05.2021).

(N/A) Graphic no 1 , Available at: http://www.umsl.edu/~orglab/experiments/ACETAMP.html (Accessed: 28.05.2021).

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Migraines – Notes MIX

Introduction/ background info / aims section
In the United Kingdom, migraine attacks concern around 10 million people aged 15-69, whilst the total NHS costs of treating this illness is estimated to be £150 per year, and the wider economy costs are even higher (NHS, 2020). To reduce a number of migraine attacks amongst people and to decrease the NHS costs, it is crucial to find a proper medicine.
Migraine is a moderate or severe type of headache that usually appears on one side of a head. The pain tends to be throbbing, pulsating, or debilitating. The migraine can attack occasionally or regularly. The scientists have not yet found the exact cause of migraine. However, there are activities and behaviors that triggers its appearance – for example stress, depression, poor-quality sleep or diet, low blood sugar, smoking, or medicines. Regular migraines have a negative impact on one’s life and can disturb from daily activities. (NHS, 2019)
The aim is to introduce the results of the drug effectiveness testing, the differences between different drugs, and how they impacted people who suffer from migraine. The effective drug is needed to help the impacted by migraines individuals, as well as to lower the NHS costs of treating this illness.

References:

  • NHS (2019) ‘Migraine’. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/migraine/ (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
  • NHS (2020) ‘Improved NHS migraine care to save thousands of hospital stays’. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/2020/01/improved-nhs-migraine-care/#:~:text=In%20total%2C%20it%20is%20estimated,million%20migraine%2Drelated%20sick%20days (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
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Plagiarism Essay

The English Oxford Dictionary defines plagiarism as the use of someone else’s intellectual property without references. However, the concept of plagiarism goes far beyond this narrow definition. The purpose of this document is to summarize Thomas (2020) presentation related to the wide issue of plagiarism.


According to Thomas (2020) plagiarism can be divide into deliberate fraudulent or unintentional. Some scholars consciously and determinedly commit the act of plagiarism. Such unfair practices deserve severe condemnation. However, students can plagiarise unintentionally. According to Thomas (2020) lack of academic skills may lead to unintentional abuse of academic rules. Furthermore, Thomas (2020) pointed out that deficiencies in writers’ workshops can lead to committing unintentional violations. In addition, Thomas (2020) lists areas in the writing process where scholars should put precautions in order to avoid plagiarism. The most serious consequence for a student may be expulsion from the university. Whether the plagiarism was a deliberate act or not, the author of the plagiarism may be held responsible.
Insufficient paraphrasing skills are one of the main determinants that may result in a research article being qualified as plagiarism. Thomas (2020), explains a number of other practices such as improper citation. A common factor seems to be the lack of adequate skills in creating content. Psychological stress also plays a significant role. Students who procrastinate with material preparation may not have enough time to finish an article, therefore may be prone to the temptation of plagiarizing.
Educational institutions are equipped with software that compares the content in terms of their similarity. However, the decisive vote in assessing whether a student has committed an offense rests with the teacher. The professor based on the previous work of the student can deduce whether the student’s work is a material created by him. Some of the students may not be aware of procedures related to the proper citation of source content. Committing plagiarism may result from an inappropriate technique of note-taking. The reasons why students commit an act of plagiarism vary from the lack of awareness and understanding concept of plagiarism.
In conclusion. Awareness of the serious implications of the misappropriation of someone else’s intellectual property is essential to an academic career. Whether the action is deliberate or the result of the student’s lack of skill, the consequences of plagiarism can be prominent. Plagiarism may be easily avoided if all credits are granted to authors appropriately. Time management techniques and proper executing action plan on each step of the creative process are essential. Correct note-taking techniques may be a remedy for plagiarism. An updated database of all sources, proper citation of every single idea is beneficial to the majority of academic stakeholders.

References:
Thomas, S. Understanding Plagiarism. De Montfort University, 2020.

ASSIGNMENT CHECKLIST
Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module: STUDY SKILLS 3: COMMUNICATION SKILLS (TERM 3)
Module code: LIPCF133_2021_503
Assignment: LECTURE SUMMARY 1; Write a summary based on the lecture notes that you took during the guest lecture – Understanding Plagiarism and How It Can Be Avoided.

Task Requirements
I have completed this cover sheet and checklist and attached it to my essay.
I have checked the brief carefully to ensure I have followed all the instructions.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.
I have written between 450 and 550 words.

Content
My introduction identifies the aims of the lecture and the main points covered.
The main body summarises the content of the lecture.
I have not included any minor details from the lecture, or any information that was not part of the lecture.
Referencing and Paraphrasing
I have referenced all sources, including the lecture itself, both in-text and in a reference list.
I have checked that my referencing style matches the Cite Them Right Harvard referencing guide (available on Blackboard, in the Academic Referencing folder).
I have not copied language directly from the lecturer’s Power point slides; I have paraphrased.

Writing Style
I have checked my work for any errors with academic style.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.

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Causes of emigration – Essay

Introduction
Ascending six years from 2004 to 2010 result in 2.4 million new Polish immigrants move to UK, Polish Central Statistical Office (2009). The essay’s aim is to reveal that political decisions are the main causes of emigration. According to Home Office report, Dustmann et al. (2003) estimation of net emigration from new EU members to the UK should oscillate between 5.000 to 13.000. Tony Blairs’ cabinet critically underestimates the emigration potential of the new eight members of the European Union. Emigration into UK can be assessed by many methods. For purpose of this essay, International Passenger Survey (IPS) will be used. The main coefficient of this survey is to screen those who intend to stay on British territory for at last one year. According to IPS survey net immigration of non-British citizens reaches an average of 495,000 per year (2010-2016).

Political circumstances
The beginning of emigration to UK begun in the early1900’s. pauper soviet peasantry search opportunities outside of the communist sovereign areas. This period is associated with refugees who escaped from communist repression. The second noticeable wave of emigration occurred after 1939 when Polish soldiers who reside outside of their homeland decide to settle in the United Kingdom. Political decisions at Yalta Conference 1945 increased the political influence of Joseph Stalin. Communism doctrine was forced. After 59 years, the aftermath of Winston Churchill’s decision to sacrifice Poland had consequences. The major causes of the massive polish exodus to UK are economical, Anderson et al. (2006). However, there are many others Podgorzanska (2016), stated that Polish citizens experienced decades of difficulty with traveling. Multiple causes, combine together trigger emigration. Open borders, no passport requirements, lack of bureaucracy, no visas requirement become a tipping point. However, nor of it can occur without political consent.

Asylum seekers & Refugees
Wars, repression & unstable political situation in the home country are the main causes for refugees to emigrate. According to United Nation convention relating to the Status of Refugees adopted in 1951. The definition of refugee was as follow. “He can no longer, because the circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail himself of the protection of the country of his nationality” United Nations Human Rights Office of The High Commissioner (1951). The document becomes common law for all signatories at 1954. UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees pointed out that many refugees are people from colloquially called Third World countries. According to UNHCR Global Trends Report (2019), there were 133,094 refugees in UK. Hatton (2004), claim that some of the refugees successfully escaped from temporary settlement camps. Refugees’ temporary law privileges are reasons to return to their countries. A 13-year research study realized by Thielemann (2003) on 20 countries reveals that factors such as employment level have a vital role for Asylum seekers. Foreigners consider choosing the country of final destination based on the high level of acceptance of asylum petitions. Some refugee camp settlers decide to illegally trespass borders with neighboring countries. Therefore, for part of refugees camps are temporary, and obtain status is used to leverage chances to transit to their target country. The attractiveness of the British labor market leads some the people to illegally trespass British border. That type of emigration is associated with the destabilization of political in other countries. Refuges and people who experienced repressions in their home country decide to change their lives. Therefore, they often risk their lives in order to find safely environment Stevens, (2003). 1980 result in 150.000 new asylum seekers migrating per year cited Hatton& Williamson (2004).

Globalisation
The imperial influence of the British Crown lead to English language dissemination. The Aftermath of British conquers was English indoctrination. The colonial history of the British Empire is one of the causes of non-EU emigration. The highest ratio of non-EU emigrants is geographically associated with the previous British colonies. Cheap transport, international money transfers, and exploding access to the internet vitally influence new emigrants to examine and validate their opportunities at homeland.


Conclusion
The phenomenon of globalization is the catalyst for many changes in the environment. Those decisions influence the fate of countries and continents. The economic factor is an undeniable major incentive to relocation. However, the development of economics is under control of the government. Conflicts escalation is a domain that belongs to countries, not to immigrants. No massive human movement around the globe occurred without political decisions. The attached pieces of evidence and history lead to the obvious conclusion that the root causes of emigration are strictly political.

  • References
    Dustmann et al. / Home Office (2003) The impact of EU enlargement on migration flows, Online Report 25/03: Home Office. at: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctpb21/reports/HomeOffice25_03.pdf Viewed 05.03.2021 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Office for National Statistic (23 August 2018) International Passenger Survey: quality information in relation to migration flows, Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/methodologies/internationalpassengersurveyqualityinformationinrelationtomigrationflows (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • R. Podgorzanska (2016) Emigration of Poles to Great Britain in 2004-2016. Implications for Polish-British relations, Available at: https://wnus.edu.pl/pdp/pl/issue/382/article/6313/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Central Statistical Office in Poland (2009) Information on the size and directions of emigration from Poland in the years 2004 – 2008, Available at: https://stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/lud_infor_o_rozm_i_kierunk_emigra_z_polski_w_latach_2004_2008.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Anderson et al. 2006. Fair Enough? Central and East () Fair enough?, Available at: https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/PR-2006-Changing_Status_Fair_Enough.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • UNHCR (2019) GLOBAL TRENDS FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN 2019, Available at: https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2019/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • T.J Hatton (2004) Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe, Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=571727 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • E. Thielemann ( 2003) Between Interests and Norms: Explaining Burden‐Sharing in the European Union, Available at: https://academic.oup.com/jrs/article-abstract/16/3/253/1549805?redirectedFrom=fulltext (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Stevens D. ( 2003) The migration of the Romanian Roma to the UK : a contextual study, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Hatton J. T. ( 2003) Hatton, T.J. and J.G. Williamson. Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe. Retrieved, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).

Name: Marcin Krynski
Module: LIPC1130_2021_503 English for Academic Purposes
Tutor: Colin Danson
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write an assignment about the causes of emigration.
Word Count: 763
Date: 05.03.2021

ASSIGNMENT CHECKLIST
Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module: ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES (TERM 2)
Module code: LIPC1120,1130, 201, 202
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write a Cause-Effect Essay on the topic of Immigration in the United Kingdom. You may choose to focus on causes, or to focus on effects.

Task Requirements
I have included the DMUIC cover sheet.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.

I have used entirely my own words when paraphrasing.
I have used a range of the cause/effect language from unit 6.3.
I have used at least 4 academic sources, and at least one source introduced in unit 6.2.

Referencing
I have acknowledged all my sources BOTH in-text AND in a reference list.
I have checked my referencing style against my notes/the Cite Them Right Harvard style referencing guide.
I have used a mix of integral and non-integral citation, and a range of reporting verbs.

Writing style
My introduction includes a hook, connecting information and thesis statement.
My main body paragraphs begin with a topic sentence, and focus on one main point.
My conclusion summarises the main points of my essay and finishes with a final comment.
I have written in academic style, and checked my work for any errors.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.
I have checked the assignment brief carefully to make sure I have addressed all of the requirements.

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Medical Doctor

Notes to presentation. Some of the unsorted information is below.

Your presentation should include:
 
Detailed description of what the job involves (and could include ‘a typical day in the life of’)
Qualifications/experience needed to apply for the role
Starting salary and career progression possibilities
Personal qualities needed to be good at the job
Any additional information that provides insight into the role (e.g. interview tests, training, travel etc.)
The presentation should last for five minutes (If you go more than 30 seconds over this time, your content is too little and lasts for less than 4 minutes, marks will be deducted)
Have clear slides supporting your talk. We advise that you use PowerPoint slides, however if you choose to use a different software, it is your responsibility to check it is compatible with IT systems at DMU
You are required to record your presentation using Panopto. Guidance on how to use Panopto can be found on Blackboard.

Standard Entry Medicine
The Standard Entry Medicine course is usually five years long, but in some institutions it is six. It can have different abbreviations, such as MBBS or MBChB, but all result in the bachelor’s degree in medicine.
Graduate Entry Medicine
The Graduate Entry Medicine course is open to those with a previous bachelor’s degree, achieving a minimum of 2.1. Some schools may accept a 2.2. Many universities require the previous degree to be health-related, but not all. It is usually a four-year accelerated degree but in some universities it is a five-year course. It is also known as the Graduate Entry Programme. Some graduate courses are open only to students from the UK.
Medicine with a Preliminary Year
This course takes the form of a five-year Standard Entry Medicine with an additional year at the start, making a six-year course. It is also known as Medicine with a Foundation Year, or similar.
This course is designed for those who achieved highly at A level, or equivalent, but who did not take the required science subjects. The grade requirements tend to be three As at A level, achieved in one sitting. This extra year gives students the necessary science training to catch up. It is not a means of boosting the grades of those who do not meet the entry requirements of standard entry medicine. Please note that many of these courses are open only to UK and European Union students.
Medicine with a Gateway Year
These medical degrees are designed for students who are of high ability but who may have had barriers to their learning due to their circumstances. The courses can take this into account in different ways, for instance by using ‘adjusted criteria’ to change the entry requirements for some applicants. Please note that these courses are open to UK students only.

As mentioned during the lecture, for ‘medicine’, you need to focus on graduate entry medicine or other pathways into studying medicine. What is the role of a medical doctor? How can you become a medical doctor after your medical science degree programme? What is a typical day in the life of a doctor like? etc.

What should I do after medical science?
                                    
From pathology to histology, a degree in medical science can open up many doors to a career in medicine or research.

6 careers with a degree in medical science
Research scientist. …
Clinical immunolgy scientist. …
Pathologist. …
Pharmacologist. …
Biomedical scientist. …
Histology technician.

  1. Research scientist
    Research scientists can work in a variety of settings: government, non-government organisations, labs or universities. They manage lab-based research projects from beginning to end. This involves designing the study, undertaking the lab-work required and analysing collected data.
    A typical day
    According to Associate Professor Andrew Harman, Honours Coordinator for Applied Medical Science at the School of Medical Science, “a typical day for a research group leader or scientist involves meetings with research students to check on their progress, reading medical papers, writing papers and grants as well as coordinating education workshops/talks and sitting on research committees.”
    Career progression
    “Key to career progression in this role is publishing your research in the best journals you can.”
    “This career is rewarding because you are pushing forward the frontiers of human knowledge and you get to work with amazing people,” says Associate Professor Andrew Harman.
  2. Clinical immunolgy scientist
    Clinical immunolgy scientists study how pathogens affect the immune system in a lab setting. “Immunology is one of the most rapidly advancing areas of biomedical research. It contributes to the eradication of infectious diseases, as well as development of successful strategies for vaccination and organ transplantation. Immunotherapies are used to cure allergies, asthma and cancer,” according to Associate Professor Jim Manos, Honours Coordinator for Infectious Diseases and Immunology at the School of Medical Science.
    “Because modern immunology has evolved into a multidisciplinary science that today integrates into many aspects of biology and medicine, immunology graduates are highly sought after by both clinical and research laboratories.”
    A typical day
    Clinical immunolgy scientists usually work in medical schools, hospitals, pharmaceutical companies or labs. A typical day might be collecting tissue samples in order to study protein chemistry and cellular reactions, or it might be designing and conducting clinical trials for a new pharmaceutical drug. This roles also requires a lot of self-education in order to keep up with the latest research in medical journals. 
    Career progression
    Senior immunology professionals manage labs and train medical students or other lab/hospital staff.
  3. Pathologist
    Pathology is the study of disease – what causes the disease and its effect on the human body. Pathologists work in labs to study bodily fluids and tissue samples. They provide vital information to help doctors diagnose disease. Some pathologists also perform autopsies to determine cause of death and disease progression.
    A typical day
    Pathologists spend the majority of their time in the lab. Some pathologists work in hospitals and offices. They are also required to write reports and present their findings, so good communication skills are vital.
    Career progression
    Pathologists in senior positions manage teams of lab workers and attend conferences to stay abreast of industry and technological developments.
  4. Pharmacologist
    Pharmacologists enjoy a wide range of employment, according to Professor Michael Murray, Honours Coordinator for Pharmacology at the School of Medical Science, “they can have careers in research, drug industry, clinical trials, marketing of drugs, provision of expert advice to the public or to other health professionals”.
    A typical day
    A typical day looks quite different for each pharmalogist depending on what area they work in. For example, “toxicologists are like pharmacologists but are interested in chemicals, not drugs. Toxicologists can work in regulation of chemicals, understanding why chemicals have effects on the body or tissues, the dangers of exposure to some chemicals, and the prediction of adverse effects after chemical exposure,” Professor Michael Murray says.
    Career progression
    Undergraduate students often go on to do a postgraduate project related to drug/chemical reactions. Some go on to pursue a full time research career and or join a regulatory agency like Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 
  5. Biomedical scientist
    Biomedical scientists work with patients and in labs to find new ways to cure or treat disease with diagnostic tools or therapeutic strategies. They work at diagnosing diseases and illnesses such as HIV, cancer, diabetes, food poisoning, hepatitis and meningitis.
    A typical day
    Biomedical scientists working in industry are usually based in pharmaceutical or biotechnology labs. They analyse blood, tissue and fluid samples to diagnose disease and work with medical staff to create treatment plans. They also monitor blood abnormalities, provide support in blood transfusions and collect data on the effects of treatments and medications on patients. Attention to detail is a necessary skill as they work with data and reporting on a daily basis.
    Career progression
    Biomedical scientists can go on to become senior lab staff, consultants, researchers or management within a wide range of government, university, pharmaceutical or not-for-profit organisations.
  6. Histology technician
    A histology technician works in a medical lab and focuses on coverting tissue samples into microscope slides for disease diagnosis. This role is vital in the diagnosis and treatments of diseases like cancer. They work behind the scenes to supply doctors with important information.
    Histology technicians work with pathologists and lab managers on a daily basis.
    A typical day
    According to Dr Paul Austin, Senior Lecturer of Anatomy and Histology at the School of Medical Sciences, an average can look like this:
    “Cyrosectioning specimens using a cryostat or microtome, staining specimens with histological regents, and microscopy analysis of specimens.”
    Career progression
    “This career could also lead to lab technician opportunities in research labs, rather than diagnostic labs. The rewarding aspect of the role would be the direct benefits to patient health as a result of biopsy analysis that could influence treatment,” Dr Paul Austin says.
  7. Research scientist
    Research scientists can work in a variety of settings: government, non-government organisations, labs or universities. They manage lab-based research projects from beginning to end. This involves designing the study, undertaking the lab-work required and analysing collected data.
    A typical day
    According to Associate Professor Andrew Harman, Honours Coordinator for Applied Medical Science at the School of Medical Science, “a typical day for a research group leader or scientist involves meetings with research students to check on their progress, reading medical papers, writing papers and grants as well as coordinating education workshops/talks and sitting on research committees.”
    Career progression
    “Key to career progression in this role is publishing your research in the best journals you can.”
    “This career is rewarding because you are pushing forward the frontiers of human knowledge and you get to work with amazing people,” says Associate Professor Andrew Harman.
  8. Clinical immunolgy scientist
    Clinical immunolgy scientists study how pathogens affect the immune system in a lab setting. “Immunology is one of the most rapidly advancing areas of biomedical research. It contributes to the eradication of infectious diseases, as well as development of successful strategies for vaccination and organ transplantation. Immunotherapies are used to cure allergies, asthma and cancer,” according to Associate Professor Jim Manos, Honours Coordinator for Infectious Diseases and Immunology at the School of Medical Science.
    “Because modern immunology has evolved into a multidisciplinary science that today integrates into many aspects of biology and medicine, immunology graduates are highly sought after by both clinical and research laboratories.”
    A typical day
    Clinical immunolgy scientists usually work in medical schools, hospitals, pharmaceutical companies or labs. A typical day might be collecting tissue samples in order to study protein chemistry and cellular reactions, or it might be designing and conducting clinical trials for a new pharmaceutical drug. This roles also requires a lot of self-education in order to keep up with the latest research in medical journals. 
    Career progression
    Senior immunology professionals manage labs and train medical students or other lab/hospital staff.
  9. Pathologist
    Pathology is the study of disease – what causes the disease and its effect on the human body. Pathologists work in labs to study bodily fluids and tissue samples. They provide vital information to help doctors diagnose disease. Some pathologists also perform autopsies to determine cause of death and disease progression.
    A typical day
    Pathologists spend the majority of their time in the lab. Some pathologists work in hospitals and offices. They are also required to write reports and present their findings, so good communication skills are vital.
    Career progression
    Pathologists in senior positions manage teams of lab workers and attend conferences to stay abreast of industry and technological developments.
  10. Pharmacologist
    Pharmacologists enjoy a wide range of employment, according to Professor Michael Murray, Honours Coordinator for Pharmacology at the School of Medical Science, “they can have careers in research, drug industry, clinical trials, marketing of drugs, provision of expert advice to the public or to other health professionals”.
    A typical day
    A typical day looks quite different for each pharmalogist depending on what area they work in. For example, “toxicologists are like pharmacologists but are interested in chemicals, not drugs. Toxicologists can work in regulation of chemicals, understanding why chemicals have effects on the body or tissues, the dangers of exposure to some chemicals, and the prediction of adverse effects after chemical exposure,” Professor Michael Murray says.
    Career progression
    Undergraduate students often go on to do a postgraduate project related to drug/chemical reactions. Some go on to pursue a full time research career and or join a regulatory agency like Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 
  11. Biomedical scientist
    Biomedical scientists work with patients and in labs to find new ways to cure or treat disease with diagnostic tools or therapeutic strategies. They work at diagnosing diseases and illnesses such as HIV, cancer, diabetes, food poisoning, hepatitis and meningitis.
    A typical day
    Biomedical scientists working in industry are usually based in pharmaceutical or biotechnology labs. They analyse blood, tissue and fluid samples to diagnose disease and work with medical staff to create treatment plans. They also monitor blood abnormalities, provide support in blood transfusions and collect data on the effects of treatments and medications on patients. Attention to detail is a necessary skill as they work with data and reporting on a daily basis.
    Career progression
    Biomedical scientists can go on to become senior lab staff, consultants, researchers or management within a wide range of government, university, pharmaceutical or not-for-profit organisations.
  12. Histology technician
    A histology technician works in a medical lab and focuses on coverting tissue samples into microscope slides for disease diagnosis. This role is vital in the diagnosis and treatments of diseases like cancer. They work behind the scenes to supply doctors with important information.
    Histology technicians work with pathologists and lab managers on a daily basis.
    A typical day
    According to Dr Paul Austin, Senior Lecturer of Anatomy and Histology at the School of Medical Sciences, an average can look like this:
    “Cyrosectioning specimens using a cryostat or microtome, staining specimens with histological regents, and microscopy analysis of specimens.”
    Career progression
    “This career could also lead to lab technician opportunities in research labs, rather than diagnostic labs. The rewarding aspect of the role would be the direct benefits to patient health as a result of biopsy analysis that could influence treatment,” Dr Paul Austin says.

Course types Standard Entry Medicine This is usually five years long, but in some institutions it is six. It can have different abbreviations, such as MBBS or MBChB, but all result in the bachelor’s degree in medicine

Graduate Entry Medicine This is open to application from those who already have a bachelor’s degree. Many universities accept a degree in any subject, but some require the previous degree to be science- or health-related. It is a fouryear accelerated degree in most cases, but in some universities it is a five-year course. It is also known as the Graduate Entry Programme.

Medicine with a Preliminary Year This course takes the form of a five-year Standard Entry Medicine with an additional year at the start, making a six-year course. This course is designed for those who achieved highly at A level, or equivalent, but who did not take the required science subjects. This extra year gives students the necessary science training to catch up. It is not a means of boosting the grades of those who do not meet the entry requirements of Standard Entry Medicine.

Medicine with a Gateway Year These medical degrees are designed for those who are of high ability but who may be coming from situations where they have had barriers to their learning. The courses can take this into account in different ways, for instance by using ‘adjusted criteria’ to change the entry requirements for applicants from lowparticipation areas. Often these are six-year courses, with the first year being a foundation year. Some schools offer a stand alone foundation year, which allows progression on to a standard medicine course.

The majority of graduate entry programmes require students to have their first degree in a science subject, but some medical schools also consider applicants with a first degree in an arts subjects.

As a graduate you can also apply to enter undergraduate, non-accelerated medical courses. These are generally five years long.

key skills and attributes needed to study medicine.

Motivation to study medicine and genuine interest in the medical profession • Insight into your own strengths and weaknesses • The ability to reflect on your own work • Personal organisation • Academic ability • Problem solving • Dealing with uncertainty • Manage risk and deal effectively with problems Statement on the core values and attributes needed to study medicine • Ability to take responsibility for your own actions • Conscientiousness • Insight into your own health • Effective communication, including reading, writing, listening and speaking • Teamwork • Ability to treat people with respect • Resilience and the ability to deal with difficult situations • Empathy and the ability to care for others • Honesty

Standard Entry Medicine
The Standard Entry Medicine course is usually five years long, but in some institutions it is six. It can have different abbreviations, such as MBBS or MBChB, but all result in the bachelor’s degree in medicine.
Graduate Entry Medicine
The Graduate Entry Medicine course is open to those with a previous bachelor’s degree, achieving a minimum of 2.1. Some schools may accept a 2.2. Many universities require the previous degree to be health-related, but not all. It is usually a four-year accelerated degree but in some universities it is a five-year course. It is also known as the Graduate Entry Programme. Some graduate courses are open only to students from the UK.
Medicine with a Preliminary Year
This course takes the form of a five-year Standard Entry Medicine with an additional year at the start, making a six-year course. It is also known as Medicine with a Foundation Year, or similar.
This course is designed for those who achieved highly at A level, or equivalent, but who did not take the required science subjects. The grade requirements tend to be three As at A level, achieved in one sitting. This extra year gives students the necessary science training to catch up. It is not a means of boosting the grades of those who do not meet the entry requirements of standard entry medicine. Please note that many of these courses are open only to UK and European Union students.
Medicine with a Gateway Year
These medical degrees are designed for students who are of high ability but who may have had barriers to their learning due to their circumstances. The courses can take this into account in different ways, for instance by using ‘adjusted criteria’ to change the entry requirements for some applicants. Please note that these courses are open to UK students only.

References

Course types | Medical Schools Council (medschools.ac.uk)
About the University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) | UCAT Consortium
Registration and licensing – GMC (gmc-uk.org)

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