Diabetes I & II

Insuline in pump

About Diabetes

High level of glucose in the blood is the coefficient for two types od of diabetes I & II. The case can occur if the pancreas does not produce insulin or manufactured insulin does not act properly. The molecular basis of diabetes are issues associated with signaling and response to the insulin hormone. Insulin receptors located on top of the cell membrane do not react appropriately to insulin. Therefore their function is impaired and glucose uptake from blood is stopped.

Diabetes I

Disease diagnosed in the early stage of human life usually in children or adolescences. Diabetes I, do not produce insulin. About 10% of diabetes patients have those forms of the disease. Diabetes I, can progress rapidly and may have a severe negative impact. This type of diabetes is not associated with obesity or overweight. The disease is associated with genetic predispositions.

Diabetes II

About 90% of patients suffer from diabetes II. Insulin hormones do not suit their function, are not manufactured, or do not work properly. There are many factors that may involve developing diabetes II. Heritage genetic predisposition to disease is one of those. The risk factor of diabetes II increasing dramatically when the patient is overweight or obese. Diabetes II, may increase gradually in time, patients may not experience any noticeable symptoms. Some of them are not diagnosed on time. Diabetes II, may implicit to major complications. Some complications may lead to limb amputations or to blindness.


Surgery procedures for obese people are available. Procedures like liposuction are suitable for some patients. Major interventions like stomach surgery may be appropriate for severely obese patients. These invasive methods should be last resort treatment. Metformin is one of the most popular drugs prescribed by doctors to treat diabetes conditions.

Life-style changes

The most effective treatment advised is to change life-style. Effective treatment is associated with physical activities. Regular exercises can lead to remission of diabetes II. Correct treatment scenarios depend on the individual medical conditions. If you are diagnosed with any other medical condition you should obey the doctor’s prescription. If you are diabetic you must take your medication. The best advice to treat obesity is to decrease the number of ingested calories and increase physical activity. However, that advice may be difficult to obey. Adopting new routines may be a challenging process. Therefore, participation in local weight loss groups may be a wise solution. Changing to low-calorie diets is an obvious way on the path to a healthy lifestyle.

Diet and exercise

Resignation from snacking fried crisps, maybe the first step to gain control of our eating behaviors. Experimental researches aim at fat extractions was done by students at De Montfort University 2021. Results reveal that baked crisps contain significantly less fat than those one fried with oil. Changing eating behavior to a more healthy one can gradually lead to rebuilding nutrition routines. Some patients do not take prescribed medicines and do not introduce daily physical activity into their daily routines. Untreated obesity can be lethal. Fast diagnose of diabetes I&II can lead to keeping the disease under control. However, gp constraints are not always abode by patients it results in complications. Therefore diabetes I & II are expensive expenditures for the NHS budget cost 10% of the total. The negative impact of those directly influences economical indicators. £10 billion each year is spend by NHS to treat diabetes. This cost includes dealing with complications occurred of treat diabetes.


Lee A, el at (12.10.2019) Social and Environmental Factors Influencing Obesity, Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278977/#NBK278977_dtls (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

Jebb S. A. & Moore M.S (1999) ‘Contribution of a sedentary lifestyle and inactivity to the etiology of overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues’, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 31(Issue 11), pp. S534–S541.

Kun-Ho Yoon, et al (2006) Epidemic obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asia, Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

Gatineau M, et al (2014) Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes, Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/338934/Adult_obesity_and_type_2_diabetes_.pdf (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

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Bruno J, et al, (2021) Pexels / Pictures Stock Database / files used for graphic content purpose., Available at: https://www.pexels.com/license/ (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

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In the United Kingdom, migraine attacks concern around 10 million people aged 15-69, whilst the total NHS costs of treating this illness is estimated to be £150 million per year, and the wider economic costs are even higher (NHS, 2020). To reduce the number of migraine attacks amongst people and to decrease the NHS costs, it is crucial to find proper medicine.

Migraine is a moderate to severe type of headache, that usually appears on one side of the head. The pain tends to be throbbing, pulsating, or debilitating. The migraine can attack occasionally or regularly. Scientists have not yet found the exact cause of migraine. However, there are activities and behaviours’ that trigger it. Those are; stress, depression, poor-quality sleep or diet, low blood sugar, smoking, or medicines. Regular migraines have a negative impact on one’s life and can disturb daily activities. (NHS, 2019)

The aim is to introduce the analysis and reveal the results of the two drugs’ effectiveness in treating migraine pain. Migone & Naproxen were tested against a placebo to assess differences between active substances. Finding effective medicine is necessary to help individuals impacted. Economical factors such as lowering the cost of treating migraine are also crucial from a wide social perspective according to (NHS, 2020).


The study took into consideration the efficiency of two drugs (Migone, Naproxen) versus inert substance placebo. The group of 30 participants of both sexes was randomly selected. The age range is from 20 to 60 years old. Doubled tiled T-Test was selected as the appropriate tool to assess the significance of findings. Provided data before and after treatment were used to distinguish efficiency by comparison of intensity and frequency of migraines. Clinical trials lasted three months period. The study compare obtained results. The intensity of migraines is numbered from being mild to extremely debilitating. (0-10)


Graph 1 – The comparison of an average number of migraines before and after trial

As can be seen on Graphs 1, both Migone and Naproxen show the significant ability to decrease the number of migraines and lower their intensity. Placebo shows the irrelevant impact on study groups. Migone shows the acutest difference before and after the trial in the number of migraines (decreased by 50% after trial). Naproxen also appears to be an effective drug in treating migraine (decreased the number of migraines by 35%).

Graph 2 – The comparison of an average intensity after medicine intake.


The study reveals that two drugs Migone & Naproxen are effective in treating migraine pain compared to placebo. Based on results Migone is the most effective drug to treat migraine under trial conditions. Naproxen indicates effectiveness in decreasing the frequency of migraine attack and their intensity. Placebo does not reveal any significant impact on improvement migraine pain. The fact that migraine can attack frequently or can be irregular it’s a study raw data limitation therefore, the results may be not accurate. Moreover, raw data do not include dosages of given substances. Additional data such as individual habits and behavioral protocols introduced during clinical trial will be useful for further research. Raucci, et al. (2021) claim that lifestyle and patient choices may have a significant impact on migraines perceived by patients. Individual live choices may significantly interfere in increasing or decreasing migraine pain. Further research exploring the case should be conducted.


  1. NHS (2019) ‘Migraine’. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/migraine/ (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
  2. NHS (2020) ‘Improved NHS migraine care to save thousands of hospital stays’. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/2020/01/improved-nhs-migraine-care/#:~:text=In%20total%2C%20it%20is%20estimated,million%20migraine%2Drelated%20sick%20days (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
  3. Raucci, et al. (2021). ’Lifestyle Modifications to Help Prevent Headache at a Developmental Age. Frontiers in Neurology’ [online] 11, p.618375. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884344/ [Accessed 18.03.2022].
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