Ascending six years from 2004 to 2010 result in 2.4 million new Polish immigrants move to UK, Polish Central Statistical Office (2009). The essay’s aim is to reveal that political decisions are the main causes of emigration. According to Home Office report, Dustmann et al. (2003) estimation of net emigration from new EU members to the UK should oscillate between 5.000 to 13.000. Tony Blairs’ cabinet critically underestimates the emigration potential of the new eight members of the European Union. Emigration into UK can be assessed by many methods. For purpose of this essay, International Passenger Survey (IPS) will be used. The main coefficient of this survey is to screen those who intend to stay on British territory for at last one year. According to IPS survey net immigration of non-British citizens reaches an average of 495,000 per year (2010-2016).
The beginning of emigration to UK begun in the early1900’s. pauper soviet peasantry search opportunities outside of the communist sovereign areas. This period is associated with refugees who escaped from communist repression. The second noticeable wave of emigration occurred after 1939 when Polish soldiers who reside outside of their homeland decide to settle in the United Kingdom. Political decisions at Yalta Conference 1945 increased the political influence of Joseph Stalin. Communism doctrine was forced. After 59 years, the aftermath of Winston Churchill’s decision to sacrifice Poland had consequences. The major causes of the massive polish exodus to UK are economical, Anderson et al. (2006). However, there are many others Podgorzanska (2016), stated that Polish citizens experienced decades of difficulty with traveling. Multiple causes, combine together trigger emigration. Open borders, no passport requirements, lack of bureaucracy, no visas requirement become a tipping point. However, nor of it can occur without political consent.
Asylum seekers & Refugees
Wars, repression & unstable political situation in the home country are the main causes for refugees to emigrate. According to United Nation convention relating to the Status of Refugees adopted in 1951. The definition of refugee was as follow. “He can no longer, because the circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail himself of the protection of the country of his nationality” United Nations Human Rights Office of The High Commissioner (1951). The document becomes common law for all signatories at 1954. UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees pointed out that many refugees are people from colloquially called Third World countries. According to UNHCR Global Trends Report (2019), there were 133,094 refugees in UK. Hatton (2004), claim that some of the refugees successfully escaped from temporary settlement camps. Refugees’ temporary law privileges are reasons to return to their countries. A 13-year research study realized by Thielemann (2003) on 20 countries reveals that factors such as employment level have a vital role for Asylum seekers. Foreigners consider choosing the country of final destination based on the high level of acceptance of asylum petitions. Some refugee camp settlers decide to illegally trespass borders with neighboring countries. Therefore, for part of refugees camps are temporary, and obtain status is used to leverage chances to transit to their target country. The attractiveness of the British labor market leads some the people to illegally trespass British border. That type of emigration is associated with the destabilization of political in other countries. Refuges and people who experienced repressions in their home country decide to change their lives. Therefore, they often risk their lives in order to find safely environment Stevens, (2003). 1980 result in 150.000 new asylum seekers migrating per year cited Hatton& Williamson (2004).
The imperial influence of the British Crown lead to English language dissemination. The Aftermath of British conquers was English indoctrination. The colonial history of the British Empire is one of the causes of non-EU emigration. The highest ratio of non-EU emigrants is geographically associated with the previous British colonies. Cheap transport, international money transfers, and exploding access to the internet vitally influence new emigrants to examine and validate their opportunities at homeland.
The phenomenon of globalization is the catalyst for many changes in the environment. Those decisions influence the fate of countries and continents. The economic factor is an undeniable major incentive to relocation. However, the development of economics is under control of the government. Conflicts escalation is a domain that belongs to countries, not to immigrants. No massive human movement around the globe occurred without political decisions. The attached pieces of evidence and history lead to the obvious conclusion that the root causes of emigration are strictly political.
Dustmann et al. / Home Office (2003) The impact of EU enlargement on migration flows, Online Report 25/03: Home Office. at: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctpb21/reports/HomeOffice25_03.pdf Viewed 05.03.2021 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- Office for National Statistic (23 August 2018) International Passenger Survey: quality information in relation to migration flows, Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/methodologies/internationalpassengersurveyqualityinformationinrelationtomigrationflows (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- R. Podgorzanska (2016) Emigration of Poles to Great Britain in 2004-2016. Implications for Polish-British relations, Available at: https://wnus.edu.pl/pdp/pl/issue/382/article/6313/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- Central Statistical Office in Poland (2009) Information on the size and directions of emigration from Poland in the years 2004 – 2008, Available at: https://stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/lud_infor_o_rozm_i_kierunk_emigra_z_polski_w_latach_2004_2008.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- Anderson et al. 2006. Fair Enough? Central and East () Fair enough?, Available at: https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/PR-2006-Changing_Status_Fair_Enough.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- UNHCR (2019) GLOBAL TRENDS FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN 2019, Available at: https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2019/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- T.J Hatton (2004) Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe, Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=571727 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- E. Thielemann ( 2003) Between Interests and Norms: Explaining Burden‐Sharing in the European Union, Available at: https://academic.oup.com/jrs/article-abstract/16/3/253/1549805?redirectedFrom=fulltext (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- Stevens D. ( 2003) The migration of the Romanian Roma to the UK : a contextual study, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
- Hatton J. T. ( 2003) Hatton, T.J. and J.G. Williamson. Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe. Retrieved, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
Name: Marcin Krynski
Module: LIPC1130_2021_503 English for Academic Purposes
Tutor: Colin Danson
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write an assignment about the causes of emigration.
Word Count: 763
Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment
Module: ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES (TERM 2)
Module code: LIPC1120,1130, 201, 202
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write a Cause-Effect Essay on the topic of Immigration in the United Kingdom. You may choose to focus on causes, or to focus on effects.
I have included the DMUIC cover sheet.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.
I have used entirely my own words when paraphrasing. I have used a range of the cause/effect language from unit 6.3. I have used at least 4 academic sources, and at least one source introduced in unit 6.2.
I have acknowledged all my sources BOTH in-text AND in a reference list.
I have checked my referencing style against my notes/the Cite Them Right Harvard style referencing guide.
I have used a mix of integral and non-integral citation, and a range of reporting verbs.
My introduction includes a hook, connecting information and thesis statement.
My main body paragraphs begin with a topic sentence, and focus on one main point.
My conclusion summarises the main points of my essay and finishes with a final comment.
I have written in academic style, and checked my work for any errors.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.
I have checked the assignment brief carefully to make sure I have addressed all of the requirements.