1. Describe what is meant by the term ‘personal hygiene’. (1.1)
Personal hygiene refers to personal individual steps that should be done in order to avoid the spread of potentially harmful microorganisms. The term aims to include the wide aspect of personal hygiene. Regular care of personal hygiene is essential to avoid cross-contamination with those who we care of. There are a few important points worth mentioning. First of all on each person’s skin microorganisms residue and grow. Those microorganisms multiply by binary fission. Therefore, regular usage of soap decreases the amount of those potentially harmful entities. Each health care professional should induce a habit of washing daily or taking a shower. The term includes all parts of the human body. In addition, keeping vaccinations up to date is vitally important for those who work in healthcare settings.
2. Describe why it is important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene. (1.2)
As mentioned in the previous answer personal hygiene is essential to prevent multiply microorganisms. Therefore, maintenance of good habits of personal hygiene decreases the residue of microorganisms on the human body. Minimalizing the amount of microorganisms entities leads to a lowering the risk of cross-contamination and infection in patients. Care about personal hygiene is paramount not just for individuals but for all who have direct and indirect contact with employees.
3. Outline the requirements of workplace procedures relating to personal appearance and hygiene. (1.3)
Workplace procedures relating to personal appearance and hygiene provide constraints for healthcare professionals. Hair should be clean, and if long should be tied back. Especially when carrying out duties associated with food. Fingernails should be short clan and unbitten. All false nails existing and jewelry should not be worn. Strong makeup should be avoided. Hands should be moisturized before work to prevent drying out. Teeth should be brushed twice a day. Special attention should be put to jewelry. British legislation agreed that single-band rings without gems may be worn. Watches always should be removed before contact with the patient. Each employee should report illnesses to the manager.
4. Explain the risks associated with poor standards of personal hygiene. (1.4)
There are many implications of poor personal hygiene. Poor hygiene may lead to the building of a number of microorganisms to a dangerous level. For the healthy hosts, those organisms may not be harmful but for patients impaired with the immune system may be lethal.
5. Describe the circumstances under which a healthcare worker may be required to stay away from the workplace. (1.5)
Those circumstances are obvious. When health worker is ill categorically should not proceed with their duties in the workplace. Issues like skin rashes, previous vomiting, or diarrhea should be ignition points to stay at home. Those illnesses should be reported to the manager and consultant with GP. In addition, a high temperature is important to signal that something goes wrong. In general, good personal hygiene is a signal that we are fit to work. Work place should have an infection control policy explaining in detail what should be done in the case of a particular event.
6. Explain why it is important to stay away from work if you are unwell. (1.6)
First off all if we feel unwell it is a signal that potentially we can host an infection. It is not possible to assess infection using common senses. If we need medical attendance we are patients and therefore like patients we should not carry out our duties. The reasons are clear and aim to keep our patients safe!
7. List THREE risks associated with poor handwashing techniques. (AC 2.1)
In the previous module, we cover this issue in detail. Poor handwashing leads to HCAIs.
Cross-contamination in the meaning of microorganism transfer or chemicals.
8. Explain why effective hand-washing is important within a healthcare environment. (2.2)
To prevent HCAIs. To care about patients. To make sure that all staff and patients are safe.
9 Explain when and why hand-washing should be carried out within a healthcare environment. (2.3)
In general, every single point of contact with surface body fluid or even picking up the item dropped on the floor should result in handwash. If we are not sure if the touched object is free of contamination and we need to touch the patient definitely before we should wash our hands. If we constantly work with different individuals after each single patient we should clan hands. Our moral obligation is to minimize the spread of infection. World Health Organisation provides procedures aimed to decrease the chance of infection spread. There are 5 critical moments for hand hygiene at each point of care. Those are;
- Before touching a patient.
2. Before the clean or aseptic procedure
3. After body fluid collection or in a case of contact with body fluids.
4. After direct contact with the patient.
5. After touching the patient belongings or surroundings.
In addition, there are a few points when washing hands is essential to continue duties. Those are as follows:
- 1.Before start the duties.
- 2.After finish duties.
- 3.Before & after handling food or medications.
- 4.Each time after using sanitariats.
- 5.After conducting duties associated with clinical waste or with used laundary.
- 6. Each single time when hands become dirty.
10 Explain the three-stage sequence you should follow to wash and dry your hands. (AC 2.4)
The first stage is well-prepared preparation. We should remove all jewelry and fake nails if present. Then we should unfold the sleeves to the naked elbow. Those well-prepared naked hands we should wet in warm flushing tap water. Finally, we can put an appropriate amount of soap or other detergents according to manufacturers’ recommendations straight into the palm.
The second stage of the process aims to make sure that all surfaces below the elbows are equally wet with cleaning liquid. Hands should be rubbed correctly till we can spot with naked eyes that blood circulation improved. We should also not just only see but feel that we have done the proper job with vigorously rubbing all parts of the limb below the elbows in both hands. In the previous module, this process was perfectly explained in the abundance of details.
Stage number three. Hands should be dried out with good-quality single-use paper towels. If hands did not dry correctly microorganisms may survive and therefore thrive and grow leading to catastrophic outcomes.
11 Identify the areas of the hand most likely to be missed during hand-washing. (2.5)
Based on numerous research we can figure out that despite all efforts human beings have a tendency to miss some surfaces during the process of cleaning. Those are the top of the fingertips & surfaces around the thumbs.
12 Describe the risks associated with wearing false nails, nail varnish and jewellery within a healthcare environment. (2.6)
Every single item is a potential reservoir of microorganisms. The rough surfaces have a lot of poor where microorganisms may residue. Every single item that does not belong to the human body should be treated as a potential threat. Although, jewelry may have sharp edges and provoke uncesesery risks for employees and patients it should be discarded. And stored in the appropriate container. Wearing jewelry may interfere with the effectiveness of handwashing. Fake fingernails are difficult to keep out of microorganisms and clean. Those pretty adjustments should be discarded. The general principle with nails is that should be kept short and smooth. Wearing nail polish is discouraged.
Means of transmission. The way which pathogenic microorganism is a transferee from the reservoir to the new host. Nodes of transmission may include; direct or indirect contact, or droplet transmission. To break this chain the appropriate PPE should be worn. Environmental hygiene procedures are associated with scheduling periodic cleaning. Decontamination of the potentially harmful environments may be helpful. Vital important stay personal hygiene.
Portals of entry for infectious agents should be secured to prevent pathogenic infiltration. To break this chain of spread following steps should be conducted. Patients’ wounds should be covered. Usage only aseptic techniques when interreacting with patient happen. Covering the face with a mask when dealing with infectious agents. Wearing PPE by members of staff. Ensuring good standards according to food hygiene protocols.
Susceptible host. To break this chain we should make sure that all staff members are vaccinated against diseases like flu, and hepatitis B to prevent the spread of the infectious pathogens to patients’.
Susceptible host. To break this chain we should make sure that all the staff members are vaccinated against diseases like flu, and hepatitis B to prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients.
13 Explain why measures are taken to break the links of the chain of infection. (3.2)
Measures are taken in order to interrupt the process of spreading infection. Each stage of the chain of infection may be interrupted therefore the infectious agent may be eliminated. The main aim of infection control is to distinguish one or more links in order to break the spreading cycle. Infection control may be adjusted in order to eliminate the potential threats in health and care settings.
MRSA Meticillin-safe staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may be a sort of staphylococcus aureus that has ended up safe to the anti-microbial Meticillin and a few other commonly utilized anti-microbials.
Clostridium difficile toxin (CDT)
Every patient may be at risk. In particular, patients who are immunocompromised may be at particular risk. People with open wounds. People suffering from AIDS. Exceptionally youthful individuals – untimely babies and exceptionally wiped out children. Very ancient individuals – the slight and the elderly. People with certain restorative conditions – such as diabetes. People with debilitated safe frameworks – from illness, or since they are getting treatments that debilitate their resistant framework. Cancer medicines (like chemotherapy or radiation) or steroids are medications that can debilitate the resistant.
The human factor is the most obvious ingredient of all HCAIs. Even the best procedures are not helpful if members of staff do not obey those. The procedures to prevent the spread of infectious agents exist, however it happened that HCAIs are still present in health care settings. The main issue stay as poor cleaning and lack of personal hygiene.
The best procedure to prevent HCAIs is making assumptions that all patients and members of staff are hosts of infectious. Therefore maximum precautions should be used every single time. Body fluids should be treated as potential hazards every single time. A list of good practices in order to eliminate HCAIs should include:
1. Prevention of spread between individuals by cleaning hands.
2. Usage of appropriate PPE when it is required.
3. Conducting periodic cleaning of potential infectious reservoirs & domestic areas.
4. Isolation of those who are diagnosed with resistant microorganisms.
5. Caution with the usage of antibiotics to minimalize spread resistance strains of microorganisms.
6. Reducing the time stayed in hospitals in order to decrease the chance of contracting HCAIs.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
The term may be defined as controls measures and precautions conducted in order to gain control over the spread of disease based on the evidence-based approach. The term includes health professionals and patients to prevent and avoid the spread of infectious pathogens.
Infection control is paramount in healthcare settings in order to keep patients and staff members safe and free from infectious pathogens. Healthcare should provide the best possible care to patients. Infection control help to understand how diseases are spread and most importantly how to control or spread. The reason for putting policies and methods in put for Disease Control is to guarantee workers, clients, and families are secured against irresistible infections and diseases by giving rules for their examination, control, and anticipation.
22a Explain the effect that an outbreak of infection could have on the following: (1.3) Individuals using the service:
Numerous scenarios can occur when an individual is affected by an outbreak. The majority of negative effects lead to individuals suffering. Infections usually cause discomfort and pain. In critical cases may be lethal. Some infections may lead to decrease mood and provoke mental health issues. Infection can influence every aspect of patient life. Elimination from everyday routines lacks participation in everyday tasks, general interruption of everyday routines may lead to developing diseases associated with mental health. The most prone persons for example those with dementia in the case of the outbreak may do not have enough care because of shortages of staff. In a case of an outbreak also the family members are influenced by the disease of one family member. Those all conditions sum together and may provide an unpredictable health outcome for patients and those who are dependent.
Outbake of infection has a negative impact to staff in numerous ways. The most important is adaptability to new circumstances and disruption of current everyday work routines. Additional precautions aim to stop the spread of infection lead to significant workloads. The stressed staff has less time to interfere with patients and colleagues. Staff members may become ill. A serious outbreak may lead to closure in the care setting.
22c The healthcare setting:
The impact of the outbreak may be significant to the healthcare setting. Lack of staff may negatively decrease of care offered. Constant swap of nurses and other staff may have a negative impact on patients especially those who suffer from dementia or other mental illnesses. Constant spread of infection in healthcare homes may lead to closure. It was experienced during COVID-19 outbreak aftermath of those events reveals how healthcare settings are prone to those kind of events.
23a (i) Outline two pieces of legislation that relate to the prevention and control of infection. (2.1) One:
The most significant legislation is called The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
The Health and Social Care Act 2008 Code of Practice on the prevention and control of infections and related guidance.
23c Outline how standards relate to the prevention and control of infection. (2.1)
National Occupational Standards (NOS), specify and list expected standards and code of conduct according to control and prevention of infection. For those who work in a health and care environment, there are specific procedures to follow up. One of those may be IPC6.2021 where we can understand how personal protective equipment should be used. NOS developed Care Certificate which provides mandatory requirements for new healthcare employees. There are also more specific bodies that regulated the profession like The Nursing and Midwifery Council set the Standards for Competence for Registered Nurses (2014) in the module ‘infection prevention and control’ further employees learn information specific to infection control. Therefore, the issue associated with infection is well explored and explained to those individuals who aspire to work in healthcare.
23d (i) Outline TWO different guidelines that relate to the prevention and control of infection. (2.1) One:
Official government sources link to
23d (i) Outline TWO different guidelines that relate to the prevention and control of infection. (2.1) One:
- National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
- Department of Health and Social Care guidelines
Prevention and control of infection in care homes publication realized in February 2013. The aim is to provide scalable guidelines and reasonable steps to protect individuals against infections and cross-infections. The publication assists managers to undertake risk assessments.
Guidance on Infection Control in Schools and other Childcare Settings published 2017. The document presents the guidelines about common infectious and provides recommendations for the period when children should be kept away from school.
24a Describe FOUR different workplace policies that relate to infection control. (2.2) One:
Hand hygiene policies. The purpose of those policies is to provide staff information and clear guidelines on how to conduct proper hand cleaning in order to prevent cross-infection.
Standard precautions policies. This policy aims to provide standard precautions to reduce infections occurring in healthcare. We can gather knowledge on how to protect individuals, visitors, and employees. The main purpose is to provide guidelines for staff that must be obeyed. Those procedures exist in order to prevent cross-infection during each day’s activities.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) policies. The main purpose of this policy is to provide guidance on how and under what condition the PPE should be worn. The spread of microorganisms may be limited by using an appropriate mask. Therefore this procedure is vital under the current COVID situation.
Cleaning and decontamination policies. The aim of this policy is to provide cleaning schedules. Keeping areas tidy is critical for cross-contamination and removing infectious reservoirs. Decontamination is a wide process that requires multiple steps. From this policy, we can acquire knowledge of how to decontamination processes should be adopted and introduced in the environment in easy follow-up steps.
25 Describe the procedures that should be followed to control infection in a workplace setting. (2.3)
First of all, the risk assessment should be conducted in order to understand how infectious agents may be transmitted in the workplace environment. All of the government’s legislation should be carefully tracked in order to introduce maximum safety in the workplace. Standard Infection Control Precautions should be considered as the first point. Therefore, based on specific needs and situations all of the below policies should be carefully considered as necessary to manage maximum safety.
- 1.Health and safety policies
- 2. COSHH policies
- 3. Hand hygiene policies
- 4.Standard precautions policies
- 5.Waste management policies
- 6. Personal protective equipment (PPE) policies
- 7. Food hygiene policies
- 8. Sharps policies
- 9. Laundry management policies
- 10. Cleaning and decontamination policies
- 11. Management of blood and body fluids policies
26a (i) Describe the roles and responsibilities of the following people in relation to infection control: (3.1)
Employees have the responsibility to their; themselves their colleagues, their company, visitors, and other individuals may have direct access to their place of work. All of the employees as health workers have the responsibility to prevent disease spread. All employees should keep control of infection. All those include reporting occurrences called Near Misses. Reporting unsafe practices to management. Working in a manner that protects every single person in the workplace. Every employee should cooperate with the employer according to their policies especially in the case of spread and infectious control. Each procedure and every single precaution should be in place all the time.
26a (ii) Employers:
The responsibility of employers is based on precise legal government constraints. However, moral responsibilities should be also an important factor. Employers have the responsibility to ensure that all work policies are introduced. Moreover, those policies should be accessible to employees. The employer must assess risk in relation to infection control. Employers have obligation to let employees know about potential risks and threats. Employers should provide appropriate PPE. Employers must ensure that all of the procedures are followed by employees. The employer must provide correct training to every single employee and keep a record of it. The employer must report the outbreak to the specific regulatory body. Finally, the Employer must undertake infection control audits.
26b Describe the roles and responsibilities of specialist personnel involved in the prevention and control of infection. (3.1)
The paramount role of infection control in the hospitality environment play consultant microbiologists. The presence of infection control doctors and infection control nurses split some of the activities among the leader from top to bottom. The main role of infectious control doctors is to advise the team according to microbiological issues. The doctor also may rescript the correct antibiotic therapy.
The specialists involved in the prevention and control of infection play an important role in the field of outbreaks and prevention of the spread of infectious agents. The role of infection control nurses is to implement doctors’ orders. However, this role is wide and also includes reporting incidents of infections, reviewing data, and gathering information from patients. Nurses are also responsible for auditing how precautions are fulfilled and how those meet criteria. Nurses also provide information and training to other staff members.
A Community Infection Prevention and Control Practitioner (CIPCP) plays an important role as an educator and regulatory body. The (CIPCP) is a vendor of information policy development training and has the ability to conduct audits. The role of a General Practitioner (GP) is diagnosis and treatment.
cleaning records audit reports care plans training records other records
A risk assessment is a document that states potential risks for those individuals who work in a specific workplace. Risk assessment is a summary of all hazardous factors and other conditions that may negatively impact employees. In the case of prevention and control of infection risk assessment means to potential harm to individuals, and staff visitors in the work environment regarding the risk of infection.
The presence of harmful organisms in the natural environment is wide. A potential carrier-like employee may bring the pathogenic organisms into the workplace in a healthcare setting which can have traumatic repercussions. Thus, many individuals are highly venerable. Those, with compromised immune systems or patients who recover after surgery after an event like this, may experience live threatening symptoms. Those symptoms may be lethal even if the healthy carrier does not experience any symptoms. In addition, the infection may spread uncontrolled leading to the ignition of the outbreak.
Correctly conducted risk assessment examination may reveal potential or possible threats. Therefore, the chance to break the chain of infection exists before an outbreak may come. The prevention role of risk assessment is vital and important. Each singular vacancy should be screened against potential infectious threats. Those threats may be identifiable and therefore eliminated.
32 Describe the process that should be followed when carrying out a risk assessment. (4.5)
The risk assessment should be conducted according to all government legislation. The most important Act in the field of risk assessment is the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. There are a few important steps worth considering to get the best possible outcome. The first is to identify hazards. Then we should carefully type what kind of hazards may be harmful and to whom. The written form is vital, all findings should be evidenced and implemented. Finally, the assessment should be revised and reassessed. In order to make sure that all steps were conducted correctly outside audit may be the best solution.
33 Describe the circumstances that could be deemed as ‘high-risk’ situations in relation to infection control in healthcare settings. (4.3)
In the healthcare environment, there are several ‘high-risk’ situations. Each employee should put attention to those occurrences. In general, all contact with body fluids is classified as high-risk. The list of those occurrences is associated with helping patients with the used toilet, and assisting with personal hygiene. The important issue is correlated with vending first aid. Administrating injections to patients may also be assigned as high risk. Each time when we deal with open wounds or other body fluids can be potentially harmful to patients and carers. Last but not least is a situation when we deal with individuals during the outbreak of infection.
34 Describe how risks can be minimised in a work setting. (4.6)
The best advice is avoidance of high-risk activities and behaviors. Although, those situations may not be avoidable the prediction of the potential situations may be the best way to prevent further circumstances. From advance and for each singular activity we should predict potential scenarios in order to reduce risk to zero and eliminate as much risk as we can predict from advance.
The second and the best advice regularly mentioned is blockage the off routes. It generally means that we should care about personal hygiene, use correct PPE. The third piece of advice is to reduce the number of microorganisms present to a safe level.
35 Explain how the outcome of risk assessments should be communicated to relevant people within the workplace. (4.7)
It is common sense that without communication we can not prevent the spread of diseases. People need to know what the situation is and how to behave in a safe manner. All findings should be communicated immediately without daily. Face-to-face communication is the most obvious but there is also the option of team meetings where we can rise issues. For those who have access to email and create bulletins natural way is to share as much knowledge with their peers. No matter what channel of communication was used we should make sure that all of us did get information about infectious before they start work.
36 List standard infection control procedures. (5.1)
Standard infection procedures are also referred to as ‘standard precautions’.
- hand hygiene PPE
- risk assessment
- sharps safety
- management of blood and body fluid spillage
- aseptic technique
- linen and waste management
- correct use of color-coded equipment
Detergents used for hand hygiene:
- disposable and single-use items used for cleaning
- aprons, scrubs, and gowns
- eye protection such as goggles and visors
- face masks
- sharps bins
- color-coded decontamination equipment
- color-coded waste disposal systems for the segregation of waste
- color-coded laundry bags for the segregation of soiled linen
38a Describe the technique that should be used for hand-washing. (5.3)
- Remove all jewelry.
- Remove sleeves till elbow.
- Wet hands with warm running tap water.
- Applying the liquid soap or other antimicrobial solution.
Handwash solution must have contact with all parts of washed hands. The hends should be rubbed for at last 15 seconds. The main attention of cleaner should be put on the tip of the fingers and thumbs. The area between fingers should be rubbed as well. Rubbing action is the most important ingredient of a successful wash. The general procedure can not miss any part of the palm Each surface must be rubbed with the solution. The hands should be rinsed under taping warm water. After handwashing hands should be dried out with single-use good quality paper towels.
Despite general rules, we can clean hands in six steps as the most recommended technique.
- 1. Palm to palm.
- 2. Right palm of the hand over the back of the left hand, finger interlaced and in opposite direction.
- 3. Palm-to-palm finger interlaced.
- 4. Back of fingers interlaced.
- 5. Rotating & rubbing of thumbs enclosed by palm.
- 6. Rotational both horizontal and vertical backward and forward with fingertips of the right hand in the palm of the left and vice versa.
38b Describe the technique that should be used for handling sharps. (5.3)
Only people with correct training provided are allowed to deal with sharps. Each single time handling of sharps should be avoided. If individuals carry out tasks sharp the general rules are:
- 1. Dispose of sharps after single usage into the appropriate waste container. Followed by the manufacturer’s instructions.
- 2. Always keep the sharps container closed. Dispose of the contents of the sharp container every three months even if the safety line was not crossed.
- 3. Report any issues according to sharp to the manager.
When individuals deal with sharp should avoid the activities like. 1. Passes sharps directly from hand to hand. 2. Resheath needles. 3. Leave sharps lying around without control, feel sharps waste container above the manufacturer marked line.
13a (i) Identify the different types of cleanser that should be used for the following levels of risks. (2.7) Low risk:
13a (ii) High risk:
Aqueous antiseptic solutions
Alcohol hand rub/gels with emollients
13b (i) Identify the different types of cleanser that should be used for the following tasks. (2.7) Washing hands before starting work:
13b (ii) Washing hands before contact with individual for non-invasive procedures:
13b (iii) Washing hands before contact with individual for invasive procedures:
- Liquid soap (Before starting work)
- Aqueous antiseptic solutions
- Alcohol hand rub/gels with emollients
13b (iv) Washing hands where proper washing and drying facilities are not available:
Aqueous antiseptic solutions
Alcohol hand rub/gels with emollients
13b (v) Washing hands before changing wound dressings:
- Liquid soap (Before starting work)
- Aqueous antiseptic solutions
- Alcohol hand rub/gels with emollients
14 Outline the current legislation relating to personal protective equipment (PPE). (3.1)
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
15 Describe the different types of PPE that might be used within a healthcare environment. (3.2)
A different range of PPE is available according to duties. Common PPE used in healthcare settings is; gloves, aprons, masks, goggles, visors scrubs, or gowns. Gloves are single-use disposable items. Gloves are used to protect employees and patients and should be used for all duties especially when we support people with suspected infections. Gloves are also required when carrying clinical waste or handling hazardous chemicals or body fluids. Sterile single-use gloves must be worn when carrying an aseptic technique. Aprons should be worn when there is a risk of splashing body fluids. Disposable aprons should be worn in process of decontamination, and carry foods. Aprons may be used on the top of scrubs or gowns when an outbreak is a case. Masks are used to protect inhaled air against microorganisms. There are advanced masks that prevent wearers from viral infections FFP2 & FFP3 masks. In a case of high risk of viral infection, those types should be worn. Googles and visors aim to protect eyes against splashes from blood or other body liquids. Visors are usually used where the virus is transmitted by air droplets.
16a Outline the responsibilities of employers in relation to PPE. (3.3)
Employers are holistically responsible for all aspects associated with; training, provision, maitanance, storage, and finally disposal of PPE. Employers must comply with Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992. Employers must make sure that provided PPE is suitable for risks and hazards. They must ensure that PPE is always available on demand.
16b Outline the responsibilities of employees in relation to PPE. (3.3)
Employees are responsible for picking up appropriate PPE. There are responsible for correct methods of wearing removing and disposal of used PPE. Employees need to cooperate with employers in order to follow procedures and keep their knowledge up to date. Report any concerns according to PPE not being used properly. The important role of employees is to let employers know about faults in PPE. If there are shortages employees should let the know employer about the lack of availability of required PPE.
16c Outline the responsibilities of specialist personnel in relation to PPE. (3.3)
Infection control personnel may be in charge of training or advising staff according to PPE. In the workplace should be a person monitoring the correct usage of PPE and helping with the PPE quality condition or potential replacement.
17 Explain how the level of risk will determine the type of PPE you might select for a task. (3.4)
In order to determine what PPE should be used. The risk assessment examination should be conducted. Careful planning of activities should take place before duty is undertaken. Special precautions should be introduced before approaching the task. The general rule is that where there is no risk of exposure to body fluids no protective equipment is necessary. If there is a low risk of splashing blood or body fluid or contamination the gloves & plastic aprons must be worn. If there is a high risk of splash or contamination the employee must worn all PPE Gloves, plastic aprons, eyes protection, face masks, and gowns. If there is an individual with an allergy to latex, therefore, nitrile gloves should substitute latex ones.
18a Describe the correct procedure for the application of PPE. (3.5)
The most important case is to make sure that PPE did not become a reservoir for pathogens. It may happen that contaminated PPE will become an infectious object and therefore usage may be harmful to individuals. If we visually spot dust on aprons or any other PPE we should discard an item and inform our supervisor or manager. Before put PPE proper hands should be done. If an apron should be worn then it should be the first cloth put on. If the mask needs to be worn it should be put as the second item. The third one is eye protection. The last one is disposable gloves. Some of the duties may need sterile gloves others may not.
The best practice conduct includes. Not to adjust PPE during duties. Do not touch anything with contaminated gloves. If gloves must be changed therefore before wearing a new pair hands must be washed.
18b Describe the correct procedure for the removal of PPE. (3.5)
After PPE usage we should assume that it is contaminated. Each PPE should be disposed of according to manufacturer specifications and workplace policy. Single-use PPE must not be reused and must be discarded. In healthcare settings, all used PPE should be classified as clinical waste because of the risk of contamination. Some of the PPE-like goggles may be reused. In cases like this correct procedures of sterilization must be adopted.
Procedure off-take of PPE aims a common sense to not cross-contaminate the wearer with PPE. The usual steps are to remove gloves first in a way that in a process avoids touching any palm surfaces. The glove should be gathered by one hand near the wrist and peeled gove away from the hand. After one glove was removed others may be peeled out in a way to not touch the contaminated glove with clean fingers. The next step involves the taking of eye protection by gathering it near a clean ear and removing the outside of the body. It is important to remove it outside rather than horizontally above the head. After removing all of the PPE handwash must be done.
18c Describe the correct procedure for the disposal of PPE. (3.5)
Each workplace should have its own policy of disposal of clinical waste. If any PPE is contaminated with body fluids it must be assigned to a group of clinical waste. Usually, it should be packed in a yellow or orange bag and then tied up. The waste should be picked up by entertained utilization company and destroyed by incineration by trained personnel. If PPE is not contaminated it should be assigned to the domestic waste group and then maybe packed in black bags collected by the local council authority. Reusable PPE must be decontaminated in accordance with PPE vendor policy. Bags never should be filled more than two-thirds full. All rubbish bags should be kept in locked areas to prevent unauthorized access.
18d Describe the correct procedure for the replacement of PPE. (3.5)
Each employee should check PPE against potential faults before use. If the fault is spot employee should imminently report to the manager or supervisor in order to gather items free of malfunctions. Therefore manager should authorize the procedure of replacement.
19 Explain why it is important to maintain a clean environment when working in a healthcare setting. (1.1)
High standards of hygiene in the workplace are essential to prevent infection spread. The cleanliness of premises and equipment is the domain of staff and belongs to their responsibilities. From a prevention and infectious control point of view clean areas have more than aesthetic reasons, although is vital that environment is free of reservoirs of infections. Each patient has a right to receive information that enables them to assess that the healthcare environment is safe and all safeguards are in place.
20 Explain what a cleaning schedule is. (1.2)
Cleaning schedule is planned in advance diary aim to manage when where and how cleaning should be processed. The cleaning schedule is a document that clearly indicates to management and other staff how cleaning duties will be carry. The cleaning schedule provides a timetable and each single cleaner should complete it when on duty. Cleaning schedule is a specific document that precisely outlines; what must be clean, when it will happen, how clean will be done, precautions for activity, and who is responsible for commitment.
21 Explain the purpose of colour-coding cleaning equipment. (1.3)
The purpose of color coding equipment is to eliminate risk of cross-contamination during the cleaning procedures. Colour-coding establishes a precise rule for equipment to be used in certain areas and avoid to use it in others. In the UK we have a national color-coding scheme. Red for bathrooms, showers toilets. Blue is used in general areas. Green is used in areas used for preparing food. Yellow indicates equipment used in clinical or isolation settings.
22a Describe the roles and responsibilities that employers have in relation to cleaning, decontamination and waste management. (2.1)
By law, the employers have a legal obligation and must prepare a framework to protect people and staff by providing a safe work environment. In accordance with cleaning, decontamination, and waste management employers must ensure that:
- 1. Appropriate waste management procedures and decontaminastion policies exist and are adhered to in a safe healthcare environment.
- 2. Employees get adequate training about decontamination and clinical waste. All records of those training must to be stored.
- 3. All risk assessments are conducted and adhered to.
- 4. Staff is equipped with appropriate PPE according to the held position.
- 5. Reuglar audits are carried out in relation to waste management and decontamination.
- 6. All adjustments and arrangements are done in relation to the disposal of hazardous waste.
22b Describe the roles and responsibilities that employees have in relation to cleaning, decontamination and waste management. (2.1)
The roles and resposiblity of staff is as follows:
- 1. All employees must adhare to existing procedures of decontamination and waste management guidelines.
- 2. Attendance in infection prevention control training is mandatory.
- 3. Adhere to risk assessment reports and inform about any changes in circumstances that may interfere with current procedures.
- 4. Immediately report any PPE issues or concerns acordnig equipment.
- 5. Understand that any mandatory equipment must be used for collective safty.
22c Describe the roles and responsibilities of specialist personnel in relation to cleaning, decontamination and waste management. (2.1)
Infection control teams comprising doctors, nurses, and scientists are present in all UK hospitals, and they are all specially trained in microbiology, virology, and infection control. These groups collaborate with several departments in order to identify potential problems before they arise.
They also give recommendations on how to avoid difficulties in the future.
These groups should collaborate with: 1. Housekeepers to maintain a high level of cleanliness and food safety are attained. 2. Catering personnel is responsible for ensuring that all food is prepared in a safe and sanitary manner. To prevent infection, laundry employees must ensure that all linen is properly cleansed. To guarantee that all areas are maintained clean, domestic services are provided.
23 Sophie has just started her new job as a healthcare assistant in a busy community hospital. One service user is being nursed in a side room because she has been vomiting and she also has diarrhoea. There is a notice on the door that the service user is being barrier nursed. Sophie regularly witnesses staff leaving the room without washing their hands. Sophie is concerned that standards of hygiene within the hospital are poor.
Explain the procedure that Sophie should now follow. (2.2)
Sophie’s concern that the poor standard of hygiene is kept is valid. If Sophie spot any wrongdoing should laud and clearly communicate her concern to colleagues. Nobody should be put in danger of infection, especially medical professionals. First off all Sophie should immediately speak about her concerns with the manager.
24 Describe why regular infection control training is important for healthcare staff. (2.3)
25 Define what is meant by the term ‘decontamination’. (3.1)
26a Outline the THREE stages of the decontamination process. (3.2) One:
27 Describe why decontamination is important. (3.3)
28 Describe the procedures that must be followed when using cleaning agents. (3.4)
29 Describe the procedure that must be followed when using disinfecting agents. (3.5)
30a Describe the safety procedures that must be followed when: (3.6) Cleaning:
31 Explain why it is important to use personal protective equipment (PPE) during the process of decontamination. (3.7)
32 Identify how decontamination equipment should be cleaned and stored. (3.8)
33 Define what is meant by the term ‘sterilise’ within a healthcare environment. (4.1)
34 Outline the methods used to sterilise equipment. (4.2)
35 Identify how sterilisation equipment should be cleaned and stored. (4.3)
36 Explain the risks associated with handling laundry. (5.1)
37 Describe the steps that can be taken to minimise the risk of spreading infection when handling laundry. (5.2)
38a Describe the procedures that should be followed when storing contaminated laundry. (5.3)
38b Describe the procedures that should be followed throughout the collection of contaminated laundry. (5.3)
38c Describe the procedure that should be followed throughout the process of cleaning contaminated laundry. (5.3)
38d Describe the procedure that should be followed throughout the process of returning clean laundry to individuals. (5.3)
39 Identify the legislation that relates to waste management. (6.1)
40a Identify the different categories of waste in a healthcare environment. (6.2, 6.3)
40b For each category of waste describe how the waste should be disposed of in a healthcare environment. (6.2, 6.3)
41 Define what is meant by the term ‘biological spillage’. (6.4)
42 Describe the procedure that should be followed when dealing with a biological spillage. (6.5)
43 Define what is meant by the term ‘sharps’. (7.1)
44a Describe how to use sharps. (7.2)
44b Describe how to dispose of sharps. (7.2)
44c Describe how you would deal with a sharps incident or accident. (7.2)
45 Explain how to reduce the risk of a sharps injury. (7.3)