Buffers Laboratory Report


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Buffers Laboratory Report

The major purpose of experiments is to compare the pH of solutions based on theoretical & practical calculations. Weak acids are known for their buffer properties. The experiment aims are to assess the change of pH after the addition of base and acid to the buffer. Moreover, practical laboratory experiments aim to examine destroy buffer after addition excessive volume of acid. Techniques adopted to proceed with experiments are stoichiometry, back titration, and usage of ICE tables. All buffer reactions on addition alkali or acid-based on Henderson-Hasselbalch equations according to M.Senozan (2001).

Buffers are aqueous solutions made from a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base. The major properties of buffers are to decrease the impact of adding acid or alkali on the final pH solution. Therefore, buffers act a role neutralizing agent and significantly stabilized the pH of the solution. The addition of an excessive amount of base or acid destabilizes the buffer solution. PH of the solution is strictly associated with H+ concentration in solution. Conjugate acid & base ratio in solution depends on pKa & pKb values.

Molarity(M) =
ACN % error + x 100% Ka =
HA(aq) H+(aq) + A- (aq) Ka = 10 -pka pH = pKa +log10 []
pH = pKa +log10 []

Table 0.0.1 Reagents list Concentration [M] pKa values Initial value measured by pH probe
Acetic acid / CH3COOH 0,10 4,75 3,31
Sodium acetate / CH3COONa 0,10 7,45
Hydrochloric acid /HCl 0,10
Sodium hydroxide / NaOH 0,10
Deionised water / H2O
Tap water / H2O

Experiment no. 1

Table no. 1
Results experiment no. 1

Buffer Volume of CH3COOH (mL) 0,10 M Volume of CH3COONa (mL) 0,10 M First measured pH Second Measured pH Concordant
pH result Theoretical pH
A 10,0 10,0 4,90 4,91 4,91 4,75
B 15,0 5,0 4,41 4,42 4,42 4,27
C 18,0 2,0 3,97 3,98 3,98 3,79
D 2,0 18,0 5,84 5,85 5,85 5,70
E 5,0 15,0 5,08 5,09 5,09 5,22

Table no. 1.2
Theoretical calculations

Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer Buffer A.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles

pKa (CH3COOH) = according to Reusch (2021) 



pH= 4,75
Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer B.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,015dm3 = 0,0015 moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,005dm3 = 0,0005 moles

Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer C.

Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,018dm3 = 0,0018moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,002dm3 = 0,0002 moles

pH(Buffer C) = 3,79 Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer D.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,002dm3 = 0,0002moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,018dm3 = 0,0018moles

pH(Buffer D) = 5,70
Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer E.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,005dm3 = 0,0005moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,015dm3 = 0,0015moles

pH(Buffer E) = 5,22

Experiment no. 2

Table no. 2
Results theory vs practice.
Solution Initial measured PH Ph after addition of 2 ml HCl pH after addition of 2ml NaOH
Measured Predicted Measured Predicted
Buffer A 4,88 4,18 4,38 5,28 5,12
Tap water 7,70 2,45 2,67 11,73 11,96

Theoretical callculations
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles
Solution was split into two equal tubes.
0,001 moles / 2 = 0,0005 moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles
Solution was split into two equal tubes.
0,001 moles / 2 = 0,0005 moles
Moles(HCl) = 0,10M * 0,002 dm3 = 0,0002 moles

ICE table & calculation after addition 2ml of 0,10 M HCl. Theoretical calculation.
Moles(HCl) = 0,10M * 0,002 dm3 = 0,0002 moles
Solution was split into two equal tubes.
0,001 moles / 2 = 0,0005 moles

Ice table after addition 2ml of 0,10M HCl. Theoretical calculation. CH3COOH
moles CH3COO-
moles Moles of H+
Initial 0,0005 0,0005 0,0002
Change +0,0002 -0,0002 -0,0002
Equilibrium +0,0007 +0,0003 0

pKa(CH3COOH) = 4,75
Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer A (from experiment no. 1) pH= 4,38

Theoretical calculations. ICE table & calculation
After addition 2ml of 0,10 M NaOH to solution of 10ml tap water and 10ml of mixture in ratio 1:1 CH3COOH & CH3COONa both 0.1 M.

Moles(NaOH) = 0,10M * 0,002 dm3 = 0,0002 moles

Calculation for addition 10 ml tap water and 2 ml of NaOH.
[OH-] = [
[OH-] = 0,0090 M
PH=14 – 2,04

Ice table & calculation
after addition 2ml of 0,10 M HCl to solution of 10ml tap water and 10ml of mixture in ratio 1:1 CH3COOH & CH3COONa both 0.1 M.

ICE table after addition 2ml of 0,10M NaOH. Theoretical calculations. Moles of
CH3COOH Moles of
CH3COO- Moles of
Initial 0,0005 0,0005 0,0002
Change +0,0002 -0,0002 -0,0002
Equilibrium +0,0007 +0,0003 0

Calculation for addition 10 ml tap water and 2 ml of HCl to 10ml of water solution. Total volume equal 12 ml
[H+] = [
[H+] = 0,01666666666666 M
PH=14 – 1,78

Ice table after addition 2ml of 0,10M HCl to 10 ml of tap water. Theoretical calculation.
n(H2O)= 0,01 * 55,5 = 0,555 mol

ICE table after addition 2ml of 0,10M HCl to 10 ml of tap water. Theoretical calculation. HO- Moles of H+
Initial 0,555 0,0002
Change -0,0002 +0,0002
Equilibrium +0,553 +0,002

[H+] = [
[H+] = 0,01666666666666 M
PH=14 – 1,78

Conclusion experiment no 2.
Buffer of weak acid and it conjugant base is solution effectively resist the changes of pH after addition of acidic or basic components. Buffer solution after addition of acid or alkali react with add component and minimalize the overall change in pH. Total change in pH is noticeable but not as significant as in solution without buffer. The experiment reveals that water after addition of base or acid capture the pH of addition. In comparison to buffer solution, it must to be taken to account that addition of base or acid do not change the magnitude of pH dramatically. Water in this case reveal the solvent properties.

Experiment no. 3

Table 3: Effect of dilution of weak acid and weak base

Factor pH of 0,10M ethanoic acid pH of 0,10M sodium acetate
Measured Predicted Measured Predicted
1 2,70 2,87 7,82 8,87
10 3,16 3,37 6,98 8,38
100 3,49 3,87 6,60 7,88

Dilution Factor 1
ethanoic acid

pKa(CH3COOH)= 4,75
Ka = 10-pka
Ka = 10-4,75
Ka = 0,0000177828

pH = -log10(0,00133335216533)
PH=2,87 Dilution Factor 10
ethanoic acid

pKa(CH3COOH)= 4,75
Ka = 10-pka
Ka = 10-4,75
Ka = 0,0000177828

pH = -log10(0,0004216965)
pH=3,37 Dilution Factor 100
ethanoic acid

pKa(CH3COOH)= 4,75
Ka = 10-pka
Ka = 10-4,75
Ka = 0,0000177828


pH = -log10(0,0001333521)

For dilution 1
sodium acetate

pKa (CH3COOH) = 4,75
pKa + pKb = 14
pKb = 14 – pKa
pKb = 14- 4,75
pKb = 9,25
Kb= 10-pKa
Kb= 0,000000000562341325
[OH-] =√Kb[B]
[OH-] =√0,000000000562341325*0,10
[OH-] =√0,0000000000562341
[OH-] = 0,000007498939925083
pOH= -log10(0,000007498939925083)
pOH= 5.1250001256
PH= 14 – 5.1250001256
pH= 8,87
For dilution 10
sodium acetate

[OH-] =√Kb[B]
[OH-] =√Kb []

[OH-] =√0,000000000562341325*0,01
[OH-] =0,000002371373705260310000000000

pOH = -log10(0,000002371373705260310000000000)
pOH = 5,62
pH= pOH + pH
14= 5,62 + pH
pH = 14 – 5,62
pH = 8,38
For dilution 100
sodium acetate

[OH-] =√Kb[B]
[OH-] =√Kb []

[OH-] =√0,000000000562341325*0,001
[OH-] =0,000002371373705260310000000000

pOH =-log10(0,000000749894209205539000000000)
pOH = 6,12

pH= pOH + pH
14= 6,12 + pH
pH = 14 – 6,12
pH = 7,88

Conclusion Experiment no. 3
There is significant difference between theoretical and practical results of pH. The trend with pH deviation rise with dilution factor. According to Senozan (2001) to obtain correct calculation of concentration [H+] we should conduct additional calculation for hydrolysis of A- and ionization of water. Calculation in this report do not take in account cases associated with ionization. However increasing pH differences after water addition indicate that those calculation are vital important for further research. Other causes of differentiation in acquired results are provided in section errors.
Cite Senozan 2001 “As we will show, the discrepancy between the exact and approximate calculation, even with moderate concentrations and PH values not far from the pKa, can be as much as 50%. (When Ka=10^-3 and the acid and base are 0,01M), and many buffer problems solved through Henderson-Hasselbach equation with the usual interpretation of [HA] and [A-] as the initial molarities – do not warrant an answer with more than the single significant figure.” This quote perfectly illustrate the deviation between theoretical and practical experiment.

Experiment no. 4

Table no. 4 Results
Based on data obtain from Mohammed Jenis DMU student.
Volume of NaOH added (ml) Measured pH Volume of NaOH
Added (ml) Measured pH Volume of NaOH
Added (ml) Measured pH Volume of NaOH
Added (ml) Measured pH
0 2,78 12 4,71 24 12,30 36 12,81
2 3,48 14 4,96 26 12,46 38 12,83
4 3,85 16 5,22 28 12,54 40 12,85
6 4,13 18 5,75 30 12,62 42 12,88
8 4,32 20 11,22 32 12,69 44 12,90
10 4,52 22 12,02 34 12,79 46 12,93

Titration curve is represented on Chart no 1.
Ph measured before addition of base equal 2,78. After addition of 10ml NaOH pH increased to 4,52. Addition additional 2 ml of NaOH reach to half equivalence point.It is situation when pH of solution equal to Pka of weak acetic acid. Proportion of conjugate base and conjugate acid are equal. It mean that after addition of total 12ml NaOH the buffer solution was established. The equivalence point should be reach after addition additional 24ml of NaOH based on practical experiment. After equivalence point after addition 46ml of NaOH. Base determine the pH condition.
Conclusion of Experiment no. 4
Compare to theoretical calculations half equivalence point should be reach after addition of 10ml of NaOH and equivalence point after addition of 20ml of NaOH. Theoretical and practical results differ by 20%. Other causes of differentiation in acquired results are provided in section errors.

Errors with additional substances & reading burette.
Calibration of pH probe.
Error with reagents concentrations.
Errors associated with cross contamination with other reagents.
CO2 interaction with reagents.

Each experiment is prone to errors. Some of them are unavoidable. The most obvious are human errors associated with the addition of an inaccurate quantity of reagents. Reading the burette scale & record results with wrong coefficients are two majors of laboratory errors. Moreover, there are issues with an incorrect concentration of substances on reagents. Significant impact on provided results has pH device. Not calibrated pH devices provide fraudulent results. After and before each calculation probe device should be flushed with deionized water. Unclean laboratory equipment influences practical pH results.
All experiments was conducted in open space. Consideration of CO2 reacting with reagents from air must to be taken to account. Even small quantity of CO2 can significantly influence pH according to Senozan 2001. Therefore all conducted experiments are prone to CO2 from air.

pH device errors & concentration
Not calibrated probe device may be the main cause of observed differences. Based on both practical and theoretical calculations from Experiment no. 1 it can be deduced that the average pH difference between theory and practice equal reach 0,104 of pH. Thus the device was not calibrated before conducting experiments it is not possible to judge that the pH probe is the cause of the difference. Concentration can be accused of prone to results. At this stage of the experiment without additional equipment, it is not possible to indicate on the ingredient of difference. The use of litmus papers to assess the pH coefficient in the solution of individual reagents and comparing them with the calibration results of the pH meter would clearly indicate the source of the problem. Adopting to procedure calibration of the probe & check pH with an additional method will increase the precision and will reveal issues associated with the wrong concentration of reagents. However influence of CO2 in air can have more significant influence on results. This lab report do not examine this critical factor.

The main recommendation to improve the experiment is to ensure the concentration of reagents before any experiment will be conducted. Deviation will influence results. Usage of litmus papers to test reagents is wise advice before we start to use pH devices acordnig to Jennings et al. (December 2010). Calibration of pH probe with standardized solutions and comparison of results will offer significantly higher correctness and may help to calculate % error with higher precision. Usage of that two methods will provide a self-check of reagents concentration and measuring devices. Experiments conducted in close systems without access CO2 from air should provide more accurate results.

  • References:
  • William Reusch (2021) Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry, Available at: www2.chemistry.msu.eud/faculty/reusch/virttxjml/acidity2.htm (Accessed: 01.05.2021).
  • Mohammed Jenis, DMU student, Acquired practical data to Experiment no. 4
  • Henry N. & M.Senozan (November 2001) ‘The Henderson-Hasselbach Equation: Its History and Limitation’, Journal of Chemical Education, 78(11), pp.
  • A Jennings et al. (December 2010) Titration and pH Measurement, Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229829145_Titration_and_pH_Measurement (Accessed: 06.05.2021).
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Migraines – Notes MIX

Introduction/ background info / aims section
In the United Kingdom, migraine attacks concern around 10 million people aged 15-69, whilst the total NHS costs of treating this illness is estimated to be £150 per year, and the wider economy costs are even higher (NHS, 2020). To reduce a number of migraine attacks amongst people and to decrease the NHS costs, it is crucial to find a proper medicine.
Migraine is a moderate or severe type of headache that usually appears on one side of a head. The pain tends to be throbbing, pulsating, or debilitating. The migraine can attack occasionally or regularly. The scientists have not yet found the exact cause of migraine. However, there are activities and behaviors that triggers its appearance – for example stress, depression, poor-quality sleep or diet, low blood sugar, smoking, or medicines. Regular migraines have a negative impact on one’s life and can disturb from daily activities. (NHS, 2019)
The aim is to introduce the results of the drug effectiveness testing, the differences between different drugs, and how they impacted people who suffer from migraine. The effective drug is needed to help the impacted by migraines individuals, as well as to lower the NHS costs of treating this illness.


  • NHS (2019) ‘Migraine’. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/migraine/ (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
  • NHS (2020) ‘Improved NHS migraine care to save thousands of hospital stays’. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/2020/01/improved-nhs-migraine-care/#:~:text=In%20total%2C%20it%20is%20estimated,million%20migraine%2Drelated%20sick%20days (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
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Experiment listening…

Chapter 2 live long learning
Listening 1

The best way to learn
Welcome in first class of Educational psychology

Work Benjamin bloom create a taxonomy on cognitive objective.

Lets understand the terms. The taxonomy is a way to classified and organize characteristic about something In biology for instance taxonomy is group and categorise the plant and animals based on similarities and differences and relationships. In psychology and most especially in educational psychology. Blooms interest is with cognitive and cognition both of it refer how we learn & mental processes how we perceive the word and understanding and remembering it.

In 1950’s Bloom was working at university of Chicago and was involved in evaluating examination. He looks for examines was developed by professors at a time and try to see general pattern in a kind of question students will be asked. He try to organize question In logical way then professor can write better exam with clear objective what is expect from students. What he end up was a 6 levels of questioning. Along with sub questions from he develop the taxonomy of cognitive or learning objectives sense been used internationally to create teaching and learning materials. Now what is interesting for you like as Bloom conjurenced learning is high article in nature. That learning progress form simplest to complex. This idea is useful to understand how you interact with knowledge and if applied practical way how to learn better. Blooms taxonomy has been refined. We know that was adopted by one of his partners David Crowfald and one of his students Loran Anderson.

  • The six levels are:
  • Remembering
  • Understanding
  • Applying
  • Analysing
  • Evaluating
  • Creating

We going to spend a little time looking of each of them in term.
I want you to understand that high hierarchy in this terms mean that you have to go to first
level before you go to second level and so on. You have to remember before you can to understand. And you have to understand before you can apply. So the simplest cognitive level is to remember and the most complex cognitive level is to creating as we look on each of this level in term. I try to put them in different real word context. To help you to understand. The first and simplest cognitive level in a taxonomy is active remembering. We have two different types of memory. First type is short term memory such you hear the name or number or statistic or remember it for short period of time. We often use short term memory when throughout the party we was introduce to someone whose name we can not remember half a hour later. We often use short term memory to store information is not usefully. Or we not sure that will be useful. It will be quite different for example if will being introduce to our boss. It is a partly the matter of attending or paying attention and the person name in this last situation is more likely to go into long term memory. Long term memory is a store of information there is more useful for us or it build up because we encounter certain ideas in details over and over again. So the first level of the taxonomy remembering. It is basically retrieving knowledge form long term memory. Recognising and recalling things that we consciously try to remember. Other times the exam simple questions asking you to remember fact or often the most boring questions. In this case you will ask to completely repeat something what you memorised such a list of dates or chemical formula. It is important to remember that it is not particularly high level of cognition. Most people can remember Einstain famous formulas E=mc2 but very few people understand what it means.

The second level of taxonomy is understanding. When we understand something we construct the meaning from something what we learned. The contrast it with first level of remembering. Let me give you an example I can teach you a phrase in Chinese or in another language you do not know. And I can get you to remember it. But you will not have to understand it. So understanding is higher cognitive level and allow us to interpret clarify paraphrase and translate ideas. When we understand something we can find examples and classified new ideas. Understanding helps to make predictions and draw conclusions. In the exam you will ask to show understanding something when you see the word of explain on the start of question. Go back to Einstain. The simple explanation of E=mc2 is that energy and matter are different forms of the same thing. Energy can be turn into matter and matter into energy. One matter travel in extremally high speed. But using Einstain formula E=mc2 times the velocity of light times the veolocity of light the amount of energy can be calculated. When you understand something you can move to third cognitive level applying. Applying quite simply involve executing or carrying out a procedure of something. Again we do it everyday we all spend a lot of time of our computers and we spend a lot of time on procedures like answering emails. Downloading files, Searching internet.

I also know you think this is both natural easy, but these are procedure that with likely miss the fire grandparents perhaps your grandparents. In an exam content is a typical apply question will be used to formula dissolve of math problem like calculating the area of a triangle. The fourth level of the cognitive taxonomy is analysing. Analysing is breaking information in the parts and then deciding how these parts relate to each other as well as overall structure or purpose. Often this process of analysing includes deciding what is important and what is not important. For example, if I ask to analyse the cases of first of 4 considering both are the opposing forces, you might decide that factors included, the invasion of Kuweit (name of city), the protection of oil resources and the punishment of an unfriendly dictator on one side and historical grievances and the desire to expand territory on the other. Among this, you will have to consider which are more or less important in the decision-making processes of those involve the staring the war. Given this process you can see how analysing is a higher-level skill you need to remember, understand and be able to apply what have you learnt. The fifth level of cognitive cognitive taxonomy is evaluating. Like the other cognitive levels this is something we each do every day. When we evaluate we are making judgment of some kind often based on criteria on set of standard apply to particular situation. For example, if you order a meal at the restaurant you might evaluate the meal based on presentation, price, taste, quality and quantity of the ingredients and so on. At the exam situation you will be probably be asked to evaluate product or process or an event and either develop the criteria in yourself or using the Set of criteria you’ve already learnt. The sixth and most complex level of cognitive is creating. When we create, we are using most if not all of the previous levels, remembering, understanding, applying, analysing and evaluating together. We illustrate these other cognitive levels by producing something new and original. In fine arts may be a painting, the sculpture, a dance, a play or a video. Similarly, in an engineering courses you might be asked to create a robot, or a design new car. Let’s take the example of the new car to see how you might to put in place all the cognitive processes. First, you are going to remember what you know about cars, different kinds of cars and machines that move. At the second level you are going to understand what makes cars move. Something that troubles easily over the surface such as wheels and some kind of power sources like an electric or gas engine. You could go on to the fourth level of applying and show what you know by drawing some designs for a new car. Based on your drawings, you might analyse what makes cars work, and go to the fifth stage of evaluating. As you evaluate your ideas and compare them to what was been done in the previous cars. You will have inside and how you can make a better car. All this prepares you to the final stage – creating. Here you bring together everything you know and produce something new. And then you’ve done it. You’ve created a new kind of car. Going back to the example of Einstein E equals mc2. The final cognitive level of creation was the invention of nuclear reactors for power and less fortunately nuclear weapons for war. For everything I’ve said so far, you probably realise that we don’t go through all these cognitive levels with every problem with confronting with. 10.30 We even get to stage of remembering information that is better left in shorter memory. Even it will be overwhelming to try to remember, understand, apply, analyse and evaluate everything what we common to contact with. Later on, go on to create something new. Yeah, recognising and understanding these cognitive levels are important. Each time you learn something new, you should be questioning whether or not you understand it and whether or not it could apply to another concept of situation. So, think about something that you know or think you know, really well, it could be something you were studying, or something you do for fun such is a sport. Consider what level of cognition you are and what you could do to learn about it at the deeper level.

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Plagiarism Essay

The English Oxford Dictionary defines plagiarism as the use of someone else’s intellectual property without references. However, the concept of plagiarism goes far beyond this narrow definition. The purpose of this document is to summarize Thomas (2020) presentation related to the wide issue of plagiarism.

According to Thomas (2020) plagiarism can be divide into deliberate fraudulent or unintentional. Some scholars consciously and determinedly commit the act of plagiarism. Such unfair practices deserve severe condemnation. However, students can plagiarise unintentionally. According to Thomas (2020) lack of academic skills may lead to unintentional abuse of academic rules. Furthermore, Thomas (2020) pointed out that deficiencies in writers’ workshops can lead to committing unintentional violations. In addition, Thomas (2020) lists areas in the writing process where scholars should put precautions in order to avoid plagiarism. The most serious consequence for a student may be expulsion from the university. Whether the plagiarism was a deliberate act or not, the author of the plagiarism may be held responsible.
Insufficient paraphrasing skills are one of the main determinants that may result in a research article being qualified as plagiarism. Thomas (2020), explains a number of other practices such as improper citation. A common factor seems to be the lack of adequate skills in creating content. Psychological stress also plays a significant role. Students who procrastinate with material preparation may not have enough time to finish an article, therefore may be prone to the temptation of plagiarizing.
Educational institutions are equipped with software that compares the content in terms of their similarity. However, the decisive vote in assessing whether a student has committed an offense rests with the teacher. The professor based on the previous work of the student can deduce whether the student’s work is a material created by him. Some of the students may not be aware of procedures related to the proper citation of source content. Committing plagiarism may result from an inappropriate technique of note-taking. The reasons why students commit an act of plagiarism vary from the lack of awareness and understanding concept of plagiarism.
In conclusion. Awareness of the serious implications of the misappropriation of someone else’s intellectual property is essential to an academic career. Whether the action is deliberate or the result of the student’s lack of skill, the consequences of plagiarism can be prominent. Plagiarism may be easily avoided if all credits are granted to authors appropriately. Time management techniques and proper executing action plan on each step of the creative process are essential. Correct note-taking techniques may be a remedy for plagiarism. An updated database of all sources, proper citation of every single idea is beneficial to the majority of academic stakeholders.

Thomas, S. Understanding Plagiarism. De Montfort University, 2020.

Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module code: LIPCF133_2021_503
Assignment: LECTURE SUMMARY 1; Write a summary based on the lecture notes that you took during the guest lecture – Understanding Plagiarism and How It Can Be Avoided.

Task Requirements
I have completed this cover sheet and checklist and attached it to my essay.
I have checked the brief carefully to ensure I have followed all the instructions.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.
I have written between 450 and 550 words.

My introduction identifies the aims of the lecture and the main points covered.
The main body summarises the content of the lecture.
I have not included any minor details from the lecture, or any information that was not part of the lecture.
Referencing and Paraphrasing
I have referenced all sources, including the lecture itself, both in-text and in a reference list.
I have checked that my referencing style matches the Cite Them Right Harvard referencing guide (available on Blackboard, in the Academic Referencing folder).
I have not copied language directly from the lecturer’s Power point slides; I have paraphrased.

Writing Style
I have checked my work for any errors with academic style.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.

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Causes of emigration – Essay

Ascending six years from 2004 to 2010 result in 2.4 million new Polish immigrants move to UK, Polish Central Statistical Office (2009). The essay’s aim is to reveal that political decisions are the main causes of emigration. According to Home Office report, Dustmann et al. (2003) estimation of net emigration from new EU members to the UK should oscillate between 5.000 to 13.000. Tony Blairs’ cabinet critically underestimates the emigration potential of the new eight members of the European Union. Emigration into UK can be assessed by many methods. For purpose of this essay, International Passenger Survey (IPS) will be used. The main coefficient of this survey is to screen those who intend to stay on British territory for at last one year. According to IPS survey net immigration of non-British citizens reaches an average of 495,000 per year (2010-2016).

Political circumstances
The beginning of emigration to UK begun in the early1900’s. pauper soviet peasantry search opportunities outside of the communist sovereign areas. This period is associated with refugees who escaped from communist repression. The second noticeable wave of emigration occurred after 1939 when Polish soldiers who reside outside of their homeland decide to settle in the United Kingdom. Political decisions at Yalta Conference 1945 increased the political influence of Joseph Stalin. Communism doctrine was forced. After 59 years, the aftermath of Winston Churchill’s decision to sacrifice Poland had consequences. The major causes of the massive polish exodus to UK are economical, Anderson et al. (2006). However, there are many others Podgorzanska (2016), stated that Polish citizens experienced decades of difficulty with traveling. Multiple causes, combine together trigger emigration. Open borders, no passport requirements, lack of bureaucracy, no visas requirement become a tipping point. However, nor of it can occur without political consent.

Asylum seekers & Refugees
Wars, repression & unstable political situation in the home country are the main causes for refugees to emigrate. According to United Nation convention relating to the Status of Refugees adopted in 1951. The definition of refugee was as follow. “He can no longer, because the circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail himself of the protection of the country of his nationality” United Nations Human Rights Office of The High Commissioner (1951). The document becomes common law for all signatories at 1954. UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees pointed out that many refugees are people from colloquially called Third World countries. According to UNHCR Global Trends Report (2019), there were 133,094 refugees in UK. Hatton (2004), claim that some of the refugees successfully escaped from temporary settlement camps. Refugees’ temporary law privileges are reasons to return to their countries. A 13-year research study realized by Thielemann (2003) on 20 countries reveals that factors such as employment level have a vital role for Asylum seekers. Foreigners consider choosing the country of final destination based on the high level of acceptance of asylum petitions. Some refugee camp settlers decide to illegally trespass borders with neighboring countries. Therefore, for part of refugees camps are temporary, and obtain status is used to leverage chances to transit to their target country. The attractiveness of the British labor market leads some the people to illegally trespass British border. That type of emigration is associated with the destabilization of political in other countries. Refuges and people who experienced repressions in their home country decide to change their lives. Therefore, they often risk their lives in order to find safely environment Stevens, (2003). 1980 result in 150.000 new asylum seekers migrating per year cited Hatton& Williamson (2004).

The imperial influence of the British Crown lead to English language dissemination. The Aftermath of British conquers was English indoctrination. The colonial history of the British Empire is one of the causes of non-EU emigration. The highest ratio of non-EU emigrants is geographically associated with the previous British colonies. Cheap transport, international money transfers, and exploding access to the internet vitally influence new emigrants to examine and validate their opportunities at homeland.

The phenomenon of globalization is the catalyst for many changes in the environment. Those decisions influence the fate of countries and continents. The economic factor is an undeniable major incentive to relocation. However, the development of economics is under control of the government. Conflicts escalation is a domain that belongs to countries, not to immigrants. No massive human movement around the globe occurred without political decisions. The attached pieces of evidence and history lead to the obvious conclusion that the root causes of emigration are strictly political.

  • References
    Dustmann et al. / Home Office (2003) The impact of EU enlargement on migration flows, Online Report 25/03: Home Office. at: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctpb21/reports/HomeOffice25_03.pdf Viewed 05.03.2021 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Office for National Statistic (23 August 2018) International Passenger Survey: quality information in relation to migration flows, Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/methodologies/internationalpassengersurveyqualityinformationinrelationtomigrationflows (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • R. Podgorzanska (2016) Emigration of Poles to Great Britain in 2004-2016. Implications for Polish-British relations, Available at: https://wnus.edu.pl/pdp/pl/issue/382/article/6313/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Central Statistical Office in Poland (2009) Information on the size and directions of emigration from Poland in the years 2004 – 2008, Available at: https://stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/lud_infor_o_rozm_i_kierunk_emigra_z_polski_w_latach_2004_2008.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Anderson et al. 2006. Fair Enough? Central and East () Fair enough?, Available at: https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/PR-2006-Changing_Status_Fair_Enough.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • UNHCR (2019) GLOBAL TRENDS FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN 2019, Available at: https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2019/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • T.J Hatton (2004) Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe, Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=571727 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • E. Thielemann ( 2003) Between Interests and Norms: Explaining Burden‐Sharing in the European Union, Available at: https://academic.oup.com/jrs/article-abstract/16/3/253/1549805?redirectedFrom=fulltext (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Stevens D. ( 2003) The migration of the Romanian Roma to the UK : a contextual study, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Hatton J. T. ( 2003) Hatton, T.J. and J.G. Williamson. Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe. Retrieved, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).

Name: Marcin Krynski
Module: LIPC1130_2021_503 English for Academic Purposes
Tutor: Colin Danson
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write an assignment about the causes of emigration.
Word Count: 763
Date: 05.03.2021

Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module code: LIPC1120,1130, 201, 202
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write a Cause-Effect Essay on the topic of Immigration in the United Kingdom. You may choose to focus on causes, or to focus on effects.

Task Requirements
I have included the DMUIC cover sheet.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.

I have used entirely my own words when paraphrasing.
I have used a range of the cause/effect language from unit 6.3.
I have used at least 4 academic sources, and at least one source introduced in unit 6.2.

I have acknowledged all my sources BOTH in-text AND in a reference list.
I have checked my referencing style against my notes/the Cite Them Right Harvard style referencing guide.
I have used a mix of integral and non-integral citation, and a range of reporting verbs.

Writing style
My introduction includes a hook, connecting information and thesis statement.
My main body paragraphs begin with a topic sentence, and focus on one main point.
My conclusion summarises the main points of my essay and finishes with a final comment.
I have written in academic style, and checked my work for any errors.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.
I have checked the assignment brief carefully to make sure I have addressed all of the requirements.

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Diabetes I & II

Insuline in pump

About Diabetes

High level of glucose in the blood is the coefficient for two types od of diabetes I & II. The case can occur if the pancreas does not produce insulin or manufactured insulin does not act properly. The molecular basis of diabetes are issues associated with signaling and response to the insulin hormone. Insulin receptors located on top of the cell membrane do not react appropriately to insulin. Therefore their function is impaired and glucose uptake from blood is stopped.

Diabetes I

Disease diagnosed in the early stage of human life usually in children or adolescences. Diabetes I, do not produce insulin. About 10% of diabetes patients have those forms of the disease. Diabetes I, can progress rapidly and may have a severe negative impact. This type of diabetes is not associated with obesity or overweight. The disease is associated with genetic predispositions.

Diabetes II

About 90% of patients suffer from diabetes II. Insulin hormones do not suit their function, are not manufactured, or do not work properly. There are many factors that may involve developing diabetes II. Heritage genetic predisposition to disease is one of those. The risk factor of diabetes II increasing dramatically when the patient is overweight or obese. Diabetes II, may increase gradually in time, patients may not experience any noticeable symptoms. Some of them are not diagnosed on time. Diabetes II, may implicit to major complications. Some complications may lead to limb amputations or to blindness.


Surgery procedures for obese people are available. Procedures like liposuction are suitable for some patients. Major interventions like stomach surgery may be appropriate for severely obese patients. These invasive methods should be last resort treatment. Metformin is one of the most popular drugs prescribed by doctors to treat diabetes conditions.

Life-style changes

The most effective treatment advised is to change life-style. Effective treatment is associated with physical activities. Regular exercises can lead to remission of diabetes II. Correct treatment scenarios depend on the individual medical conditions. If you are diagnosed with any other medical condition you should obey the doctor’s prescription. If you are diabetic you must take your medication. The best advice to treat obesity is to decrease the number of ingested calories and increase physical activity. However, that advice may be difficult to obey. Adopting new routines may be a challenging process. Therefore, participation in local weight loss groups may be a wise solution. Changing to low-calorie diets is an obvious way on the path to a healthy lifestyle.

Diet and exercise

Resignation from snacking fried crisps, maybe the first step to gain control of our eating behaviors. Experimental researches aim at fat extractions was done by students at De Montfort University 2021. Results reveal that baked crisps contain significantly less fat than those one fried with oil. Changing eating behavior to a more healthy one can gradually lead to rebuilding nutrition routines. Some patients do not take prescribed medicines and do not introduce daily physical activity into their daily routines. Untreated obesity can be lethal. Fast diagnose of diabetes I&II can lead to keeping the disease under control. However, gp constraints are not always abode by patients it results in complications. Therefore diabetes I & II are expensive expenditures for the NHS budget cost 10% of the total. The negative impact of those directly influences economical indicators. £10 billion each year is spend by NHS to treat diabetes. This cost includes dealing with complications occurred of treat diabetes.


Lee A, el at (12.10.2019) Social and Environmental Factors Influencing Obesity, Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278977/#NBK278977_dtls (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

Jebb S. A. & Moore M.S (1999) ‘Contribution of a sedentary lifestyle and inactivity to the etiology of overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues’, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 31(Issue 11), pp. S534–S541.

Kun-Ho Yoon, et al (2006) Epidemic obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asia, Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

Gatineau M, et al (2014) Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes, Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/338934/Adult_obesity_and_type_2_diabetes_.pdf (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

Kelvin H M Kwok, et al (2016) ‘Heterogeneity of white adipose tissue: molecular basis and clinical implications’, Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 48

Bruno J, et al, (2021) Pexels / Pictures Stock Database / files used for graphic content purpose., Available at: https://www.pexels.com/license/ (Accessed: 25.02.2021).

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LIPC1120,1130, 201, 202


Read the attached articles and, synthesizing the information, write one paragraph discussing the advantages and disadvantages of globalisation. Use the skills that you have been taught in class. No additional information is to be used. Quotations are acceptable but these must be kept to a minimum.

The final version of your assignment must be submitted by 09.00hrs on Friday 19th February. You must upload the final version of your essay to Turnitin. If you do not submit by the deadline, your mark will automatically be capped at 40/46%. No hard copy is required.

Task Requirements
The task should be 250-350 words in total, and must meet the required word count.
The paragraphs should be written in an appropriate academic style.
Demonstrate a range academic vocabulary (Use the AWL to help you).
Demonstrate the ability to paraphrase, summarise, and synthesize information appropriately.
Use a mix of integral and non-integral citation.
Demonstrate a range of reporting verbs.
You must acknowledge all your references to source material both in-text and in a reference list at the end of your paragraph. You should use the Cite Them Right Harvard referencing system (see Blackboard for links to the Cite Them Right website).
A minimum of four academic sources is required (ie you must use at least four of the five texts).
Students may use online or electronic dictionaries/thesauruses to help them. Students are not permitted to use language generating software or online programmes. If a student is deemed to have used these, their assignment will not be graded.

Your submission must:
• be word-processed
• Use font size 12 in Arial or Times New Roman
• Use 1.5 line-spacing or double spacing
• Include the title (as given)
• Attach the required Cover Sheet.

You will be assessed on the following areas:
Task, Organisation, Vocabulary, Grammar
See separate marking descriptors provided.

On successful completion of this assessment, students will be able to:
Read academic texts, make decisions about usefulness of the content, and critically extract appropriate information with little to no problem around vocabulary and speed
Write extended texts appropriate to academic context with little or no problem of coherence and cohesion
Write subjective notes that are readily retrievable and referenceable.

  1. Make use of a range of strategies to enable them to develop to a higher level their English
    language ability and function as independent learners

DMUIC provides guidance and advice on good academic practice and avoidance of plagiarism. In submitting any academic work for assessment, you are deemed to be doing so on the basis that you have not committed an Academic Offence or Bad Practice.
The use of language generating /enhancement software is prohibited in this assessment. The language submitted should be a true indictor of a student’s language ability. The use of such software will be deemed as Bad Academic Practice.
Sources should be used and all of these must be clearly acknowledged.

Submission details
Ideas for the essay will initially be brainstormed in class and you may have time to begin writing your report in class. Your tutor will also provide feedback on any draft work presented.


(including spelling) GRAMMAR
(including punctuation)
25 The task is fully addressed in reference to the brief and little could be improved. Word count has been met. Sources are correctly acknowledged both in-text and in a reference list. The submission stands out in terms of sophistication of structure. It is effortless to read with a logical flow aided by appropriate use of connecting devices both in and between paragraphs. Paragraphing is used completely appropriately. There is an impressive range of topic related and academic vocabulary, used completely accurately and appropriately with no spelling mistakes or errors in word forms. Grammatical structure and syntax are used very accurately and a wide range of more complex and sophisticated structures is employed to very good effect. Conventions of punctuation are followed throughout. Most sentences are error free.
20 The task is sufficiently addressed in reference to the brief. Word count has been met. Sources are correctly acknowledged both in-text and in a reference list. The submission is very easy to read and there is a logical flow aided by appropriate use of connecting devices in and between paragraphs. There are very few slips but they do not impede communication. Paragraphing is adequate. In general the vocabulary used is academic in tone and used accurately with a good range. There may be a few errors of choice or spelling mistakes but these do not impede communication at all. Grammatical structure and syntax are used accurately and there is a range of more complex and sophisticated structures. Conventions of punctuation are followed and many sentences are error free.
15 All parts of the task are addressed but some may be covered more fully than others. Word count has been met. Sources are correctly acknowledged both in-text and in a reference list with minimal error. The submission is quite easy to read and generally has a logical flow aided by the use of some appropriate connecting devices. There may be some issues with paragraphing but generally these do not impede communication. The vocabulary is mostly academic in tone, and register is generally appropriate. The range is adequate but there may be errors of word choice and spelling. These do not seriously impede communication. Appropriate structures and syntax are generally used accurately. There is some evidence of sophistication and some sentences are error free. There may be a few slips of punctuation.
10 Response to task is minimal and some ideas may be irrelevant and repetitive. Some sources may not be acknowledged or have been acknowledged incorrectly. The task may be up to 10% under-length. The submission may not always be easy to read on the whole but the structure is logical and the use of connecting devices has been attempted with limited success. There are issues with paragraphing, which may impede flow and communication. Vocabulary may not be academic in tone and there are errors of choice and spelling which occasionally put strain on the reader. The range of vocabulary is just adequate. Basic structures are used accurately and there is an attempt at sophistication but errors often occur in more complex sentences. It may be necessary to re-read some sections to understand the meaning. There are some punctuation errors.
5 Does not really address the task. No evidence of correct referencing conventions. The task may be considerably under-length. The submission is not easy to read and few or no connecting devices have been used, or the flow may be interrupted by inappropriate use of connecting devices and poor and/or illogical structure. There may be major issues with paragraphing or no paragraphing at all. Vocabulary range is very limited and there may be significant errors of choice, collocation, tone and spelling that cause the reader to re-read sections to understand the meaning. Basic structures and syntax are often faulty. There is no attempt at more complex structures and there are errors of punctuation. The range of structures is below that expected to complete the task. It may be necessary to read a number of sections to understand the meaning.

Writing Assignment 3- Synthesizing
Text 1
Globalisation is the tendency for the world economy to work as one unit, led by large international companies doing business all over the world. Some of the things that have led to globalisation are the ending of trade barriers, the free movement of capital, cheap transport and the increased use of electronic systems of communication such as the Internet. (From an article by Niklas Potrafke called The Evidence on Globalisation. It was in the Journal World Economy in 2015. It was in volume 38, issue 3, and the article was on pages 509-552. This quotation was from page 510.)
Text 2
These new channels of communication have helped spread a homogenous and largely commercial culture. Disney movies are children’s food the world over. Barbie dolls, fast-food restaurants, hip-hop music and corporate-driven, American-style youth culture attract millions of new converts from the bidonvilles of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, to the wealthy suburbs of Sydney. Alternatively you can now find a dazzling variety of ‘ethnic’ foods – including Thai, Szechwan, Mexican and Indian – throughout Europe, North America and Australia. In fact, many residents and visitors to Britain believe globalisation and the resulting ‘fusion’ of cuisine is the best thing to happen to English cooking in the past 500 years.
There is every reason to believe this global exchange of people, products, plants, animals, technologies and ideas will continue into the future. The process of change is unstoppable. And that is not such a bad thing. In many ways it is a positive process containing the seeds of a better future for all the world’s people. Globalisation cannot help but be a positive force for change if we come to recognize the common thread of humanity that ties us together.
However, gaps between rich and poor are widening, decision-making power is concentrated in fewer and fewer hands, local cultures are wiped out, biological diversity is destroyed, regional tensions are increasing and the environment is nearing the point of collapse. That is the sad reality of globalisation, an opportunity for human progress whose great potential has been thwarted. Instead we have a global economic system which feeds on itself while marginalizing the fundamental human needs of people and communities. (From an article by David Ransome called Globalisation – an alternative view. It was in the magazine: New Internationalist, in 1997. It was in volume 296, and the article was on pages 7-10. This quotation was from page 8.)
Text 3
Globalisation is increasing inequality and poverty worldwide as national governments lose the ability to control their development strategies and policies. Political solutions are needed to reinvigorate democratic control both North and South. But political reforms need to be combined with particular mechanisms for structural reform. In combination these should put meaningful employment and human rights at the heart of economic policy, boost local control and decision-making, and restore  the ecological health and natural capital of our planet. (This is from a book called: The no-nonsense guide to globalisation by Wayne Ellwood. It was published in London by Verso in 2001. The quotation is from page 12.)

Text 4
Globalisation is a new word which describes an old process: the integration of the global economy that began in earnest with the launch of the European colonial era five centuries ago. But the process has accelerated over the past quarter century with the explosion of computer technology, the dismantling of trade barriers and the expanding political and economic power of multinational corporations. (From an article by Chay-Hoon Tan and Paul Macneill called Globalisation, economics and professionalism. It was in the Journal Medical Teacher in 2015. It was in volume 37, issue 9, and the article was on pages 850-855. This quotation was from page 852.)

Text 5
Most of us would look at Brazil, Belgium and Bangladesh and see three different cultures. Al Zeien, chief executive of Gillette, the US razor maker, simply sees a lot of people in need of a shave. He believes Gillette is a “global” company in the way few corporations are. “A multinational has operations in different countries,” he says. “A global company views the world as a single country. We know Argentina and France are different, but we treat them the same. We sell them the same products, we use the same production methods, we have the same corporate policies. We even use the same advertising, in a different language, of course.” The company’s one-size-fits-all strategy has been effective. The group makes items almost everyone in the world buys at one time or another, including shavers, batteries and pens. It aims to dominate the markets it operates in: its share of the worldwide shavers market, for example, is 70 per cent, which the company hopes to increase by the launch next week of a new razor for men.

To make sure managers worldwide are on the same wavelength, Mr Zeien insists they move from country to country and division to division. Being moved around places them in the role of “idea ambassadors” who can transfer concepts. “I believe in diagonal promotions,” he says. “You don’t move up in a nice progression through one area or country.” Managers joining Gillette should expect to be geographically relocated three or four times in their first dozen years. During the last few years, Mr Zeien has concentrated on increasing the number of Americans in overseas posts, and the time foreign managers spend in the US. There are problems with his approach, he admits. Being transferred from country to country can be hard on staff. People in dual-career marriages, he says, probably should not work for Gillette. The company’s commitment to standardisation, moreover, costs it customers in niche markets within countries. Mr Zeien long ago decided the drawbacks were worth suffering. “I tell my workers all the time that we’ll only be in markets where we can be number one,” he says. “Focus is what gives us bang for the buck.” (This was by the journalist Victoria Griffith. It was published in the Financial Times on 7th April 1998, p. 10 in an article called As close as a group can get to global)

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Globalisation is a name for the continuous process of consolidating smaller units into larger structures. Thus, globalisation is a complex and multilayer international issue. There is no singular agreement on how to qualify or judge this phenomenon. Tan & Macneill (2015), argue that the rapid explosion of the internet has a role in developing multinational business initiatives. Moreover, Potrafke (2015), indicates to the internet as one of the sources of globalisation expansion. Worldwide capital transfers & cheap transport had a significant role to ease companies’ developing process. Therefore, local structures become international operating holdings. In addition, companies scale their business and become operators on an international scale. Borders do not obstruct the increasing economical influence. Global investors become a threat to dominating position of governments. To cite Ellwood, (2015) p.12 “Globalisation is increasing inequality and poverty worldwide as national governments lose the ability to control their development strategies and policies.“ Even the culture is not immune to globalisation. According to Ransome (1997), global company’s like Disney, create entertainment consumed by children. Disney brand may be one example of how homologous reality can be served simultaneously to adolescents and to their parents. People around the globe are under influence of standardized fast foods, music, and movies. Ransome (1997), stated that the progress of exchange on a global scale is unstoppable. However, he also claims that “regional tensions are increasing and the environment is nearing the point of collapse“ (Ransome, 1997, p.7-10). Global international firms may not respect local social and economical ecosystems appropriately. Those issues connected with the constant decrease of government control can have a major negative impact on regional communities. On contrary, Ransome in the same article claims that globalisation can lead us to identify the common threat and learn how to cooperate globally in order to succeed. Singular position on thesis how to assess globalisation can not be binary. Ransome, in one article, provides opposite arguments pro and con. Despite all of that pieces of evidence, increasing inequality in wealth distribution may result in pauperism Ellwood (2015). That controversial factor and many others are common coefficients of globalisation.

(Tan et al. 2008; Chong & Tan2010)

Tan, C. H. & Macneill P. (2015) ‘Globalisation, economics and professionalism’, Medical Teacher, 37:9, p. 850-855.
Potrafke N. (2015) ‘The Evidence on Globalisation’, World Economy, 38:3, p. 509-552.
Elwood, W. (2001) The no-nonsense guide to globalisation , London: Verso.
Ransome D. (1997) ‘Globalisation – an alternative view. ‘, New Internationalist, 296, p. 7-10.

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