Disstractions… Essay

According to McCoy (2016), 97% of students use their devices during lectures for other purposes than learning. The aim of the essay is to summarize recorded lecture about digital distractions and provide an overview for those individuals who are affected. Access to digital devices with access to the internet is common. The boon of technology does have a significant negative impact on those who are not conscious of how addictive it can be. Students provide multiple excuses to explain why the device is essential. However, the real issue is not allocated in devices rather in the way how we interact with them. Cure can be administered only if addicted students understand the process of susceptibility. Therefore, behavior can be corrected. Digital distraction can be managed but the consciousness of existing hidden influence. It is the first step to find and organize an action plan in order to find a satisfactory solution. Distracted students have multiple excuses to interact with the screen rather than focus on lectures. The obvious argumentation is that they must stay connected. Despite student reasons, facts indicate to obsessive-compulsive importunity. Unconscious addiction is the main coefficient of behavior. Difficulty to focus attention during lectures is the result of constant usages of technology. Goleman pointed out that skill to focus is even more important than a high IQ. The ability to focus can predict and determine academic success. Use smartphones during lectures is a common behavior. The myth of multitasking is a legend for that student who rationalizes smartphone usage during lectures. The ability to multitasking is impossible for human entities. However, multitasking is partially true. We can focus our attention on one activity then swap to other. Self-regulating techniques are the first step to increase focus and decrease distractions. Distraction management should be a procedure worth consideration. The easiest solution to avoid digital distraction is removing the cause. Furthermore, it can be difficult. Notification interruption is just to turn it off Mavridi (2018). If students must have their smartphone the airplane function may be a wise solution.

Then appropriate plan may be self-administrated. Moreover, additional aid may be necessary to increase the chances of avoiding distractions. Good advice is the procedure of deactivation of all notifications on our devices during the learning process. Removal of temptation is crucial. Creating barriers remove stimulus will decrease the chance of pick up smartphones compulsively.

In conclusion, the constant development of technology is a cause of new previously unknown intrusion habits. Self-regulating techniques may provide recognition of potentially harmful behaviors. Realizing the potential harmfulness of using technology is the first step in turning negative habits into conscious self-regulating activities. Adopting unwritten cultural digital norms of netiquette is compulsory for those who aspire to academic careers. Previously unknown, digital courtesy rituals seem to be a new age savoir vivre.


McCoy, B. (2016) Digital Distractions in the Classroom: Student Classroom Use of Digital Devices for Non-Class Related Purposes, Faculty publications, College of Journalism & Mass Communications. Paper 90, (Accessed: 11.05.2021).

Mavridi, S. (2018) ‘Managing digital distractions in class and beyond’ [Recorded lecture]. LIPCF133_2021_503: Study Skills 3. De Montfort University. 10 April. Available at resource: URL (Accessed: 11.05.2021).

Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module code: LIPCF133_2021_503
Assignment: LECTURE SUMMARY 2; Write a summary based on the lecture notes that you took during the guest lecture – ‘Managing digital distractions in class and beyond’.

Task Requirements
I have completed this cover sheet and checklist and attached it to my essay.
I have checked the brief carefully to ensure I have followed all the instructions.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.
I have written between 450 and 550 words.

My introduction identifies the aims of the lecture and the main points covered.
The main body summarises the content of the lecture.
I have not included any minor details from the lecture, or any information that was not part of the lecture.

Referencing and Paraphrasing
I have referenced all sources, including the lecture itself, both in-text and in a reference list.
I have checked that my referencing style matches the Cite Them Right Harvard referencing guide (available on Blackboard, in the Academic Referencing folder).
I have paraphrased language from the lecturer’s Powerpoint slides and speech.

Writing style
I have checked my work for any errors with academic style.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.

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Synthesis & purification of paracetamol.

Synthesis analysis and purification of paracetamol.


Table no. 1 Reagents list:
4-aminophenol (g)2.20
Acetic anhydride (ml)2.20
Propanone (acetone) (ml)20.00
Commercial paracetamol, 2 tablets (g)3.43
Ethyl acetate C4H8O210
Petroleum ether (ml)1


The aim of the experiment is to synthesize paracetamol in the control laboratory environment. Purification, Recrystallization, and comparison of synthesized sample to commercial brand paracetamol. Confirming of obtained substance by assessing melting point. Verification of purity based on Thin Layer Chromatography TLC. Reaffirmation that samples contain paracetamol will be conducted by Infra-Red spectroscopy IR. To validate results three different assay techniques were adopted. IR spectra. TLC paper chromatography. The range of melting point was observed. The purity of the product is confirmed by melting point and by comparison to industry literature.

The reaction of 4-aminophenol with acetyl anhydride is conducted the final product will include paracetamol and acetic acid. The reaction is divide into two main steps the first one is addition second elimination. The amide bond is formed in paracetamol and the by-product ethanoic acid.


The exact mass of 4-aminophenol used as reagent equal 2.20g

Mass of recrystallized purified paracetamol equal 0.82g


Graphic no. 1


4-Aminophenol acetic anhydride paracetamol acetic acid

Ratio 4-aminophenol to acetic anhydride is 1:1

Weight of 4-Aminophenol used to reaction equal 2,20g.

Molar mass of 4-Aminophenol equal 109.128 g/mol.

n(C6H7NO)= 0.0202 mol

Volume of acetic anhydride equal 2.2ml

Volume of acetic anhydride = 0,0022dm3

Density of acetic anhydride = 1,08g/ml

Molar mass of acetic anhydride equal 102.089 g/mol.


mass(C4H6O3)= 2.2ml *1,08g/ml

mass(C4H6O3)= 2,376g

n(C4H6O3)= 0.0233 mol

C6H7NO : C4H6O3

Ratio 1:1

0.0202mol : 0.0233mol

4-Aminophenol is a limiting reagent Thus, has lower moles compare to acetic anhydride.

Acetic anhydride is an excess reagent.

Theoretical and actual yield calculations evaluation is based on limiting reagent. In this case, the limiting reagent is 4-Aminophenol observing the reaction it is concluded that the ratio 4-Aminophenol to paracetamol is 1:1 Therefore, n(4-Aminophenol) =n(paracetamol).

Theoretical Yield for paracetamol

Acetaminophen molar mass = 151.165 g/mol

Theoretical Yield = moles of acetaminophen * molar mass of acetaminophen

                         = 0.0202mol x 151.165/mol

                         = 3,0535 g

Actual yield of paracetamol = 0,82g

Actual Yield obtained in experiment.

Actual Percent Yield =          Actual Yield        x 100%

                             Theoretical Yield

                     =            0,82 g      x 100 %


                     =  26,85 %

Atom economy (Atom utilization)

atom economy =     (Relative formula mass of paracetamol) * 100%

                             (Sum of relative formula masses of reactants)

atom economy =    (paracetamol) * 100%

                             Mr(4-Aminophenol)+ Mr(acetic anhydride)

atom economy =    151.165 * 100%

                             109.128 + 102.089

atom economy =    151.165 * 100%

  109.128 + 102.089

atom economy =    71,56 %

Melting point

Sample of synthesized paracetamol was observed through the melting process, first visible liquid drop starts at 170°C and finishes at 179°C. Commercial paracetamol start melts at 176°C and finalized at 179°C.

The matching range of substance melting points may be used as a purity indicator. Comparison melting points to scientific articles is a way to ensure the purity of the synthesized substances. Contaminations or impurities in the sample will lower the melting point. Impurities in the sample will lead to extending the range when solid will change the state of aggregation to liquid. Based on this indicator experiment reveal that synthesized paracetamol contains undesired contamination. However, Bashpa et al. (2014) pointed out that the pure paracetamol melting point is 169°C. Conducted examination of 11 brands of paracetamol tablets fit in and coincide with the experimentally obtained melting results.

(IR) Infra-Red Spectrograph

IR Spectogram of paracetamol.

Paracetamol’s bonds interfere with the infrared light spectrum. IR sensors detect the energies of compound bonds. Analysis of obtained data aid to determine the type of bonds in the molecule Therefore, functional groups are marked as present in the molecule. IR spectrogram no. 1 represent reference spectrogram for pure paracetamol. The second chart reveals spectra for commercial brand tablets. The third one shows sample obtain in the laboratory. Visual investigation of charts leads to the conclusion that all examined samples contain paracetamol. Furthermore, Table no. 3 provides pieces of evidence for characteristic peaks and stretches.

Table no. 3 IR Spectrogram
IR spectrum Wavenumbers(cm-1)Functional group deduced.
1504C-C (aromatic)
Bonding pairs paracetamol molecule.

The presence of all these peaks leads to the conclusion that the obtained product is paracetamol. In addition, excellent similarities are clearly notable.

TLC Chromatography

Data gathered from Chromatogram no. 1 was used to calculate the Rf value. Synthesized paracetamol and its commercial brand equivalent are equal and have Rf = 0,44. No additional spots on their bar chart indicate about potentially high purity of both substances. Interesting results three different spots were observed for acetic anhydride. However, those contaminations may be the result of hydrolysis of acetic anhydride. Although, recrystallization of paracetamol and the purification process was conducted appropriately for both paracetamol samples.

Type of substanceDistance traveled in cmDistance to solventfrontDistance to solvent front in cmRValue
4-aminophenol C6H7NO3,56,40,54
acetic anhydride2,4 / 3,5 / 5,66,40,37 / 0,54 / 0,87
synthesized paracetamol2,86,40,44
commercial brand paracetamol.2,86,40,44
Paracetamol chromatogram. 4-aminophenol chromatogram.


Hand draw no. 1 present reaction and explanation of processes of addition & elimination in the aqueous solution of acetic anhydride and 4-aminophenol. The explanation why reaction required heat to occurs. Srabovic et. al. (2017) pointed out about solubility of 4-aminophenol in cold water. To obtain high yield solution is heated to approximately 90 degrees of C. 4-aminophenol dissolve successfully in water. Skip the step of heating solution will decrease the yield of paracetamol. Potential reagents contaminations and impurities dissolved in water. In process of the cooling solution when paracetamol crystals start to form significant numbers of contaminations stay in liquid. Therefore, the crystal form of the final product is purified & highly desirable. After the heating solution was cooled. The suspension was filtered by vacuum. Finally, the residue was flushed by cold water and left until water vaporized. Mass of paracetamol crystals was noted. To eliminate all residue contaminations the process of recrystallization was adopted. According to Srabovic et. al. (2017), paracetamol is insoluble in cold water. The mixture was heated and paracetamol dissolve. The solution was cooled down until reach room temperature. Cold paracetamol starts to crystallize. Vacuum flow and paper filter aid help to finish the process. The mass of paracetamol was noticed.


Each experiment is prone to external environmental conditions. Moreover, those conditions may negatively impact experiment accuracy and to final results obtained. On the first plan, hygroscopic properties of acetic anhydride should be considered. According to Chromatogram no.1 is visible that there are three different spots marked. Water presented in air interreact with acetic anhydride and therefore acetic anhydride hydrolyze. (CH3CO)2O + H2O → 2 CH3CO2H Concentration of acetic anhydride may be a matter of discussion. Acetic anhydride dissolves in water to approximately 2.6% of the mass. Each operation with liquid is prone to misreading burette and for incorrect addition of volume. It must be noticed that process of vacuuming starts rapidly. Uncounted mass of substance was lost in a process. Manifold with digital pressure valve to control airflow should be beneficial and will avoid further disappointment. It is recommended to wet paper filters to get a better grip between vacuumed substance and patch potential air leaks around. In general filtration, suction, as well as lack of researcher experience are major causes of errors.

Recommendations and suggestions

-accuracy and precision with weighting measuring and moving product.

-the slower process of crystallization

-decrease the volume of solvent required to wash residue to a minimum

-decrease the suction in vacuum pump


To conclude all of the mentioned pieces of evidence lead to formulating a statement that the synthesized product is definitely paracetamol. Determined melting ranges were matched to literature. IR spectrogram’s and TLC chromatogram’s results confirmed that the gathered product is paracetamol. Relatively low yield gathered 26.85%. High purity was gained despite the potential contamination of excess reagent. Purity and structure of molecule proven by three assay techniques simultaneously. TLC chromatograph does not show impurities in samples. The melting point for both samples of paracetamol is comparable with professional chemistry literature. IR spectra for both samples of paracetamol matched perfectly according to the paramount pure paracetamol source chart model obtained from IR device. Comparison to literature Bashpa et al. (2014), 11 commercial brands of paracetamol obtained similar melting points. To consideration should be taken the relatively too fast process of paracetamol crystallization. Extend the period of crystallization may be beneficial for yield. The calculated atom economy of 71.56% for the reaction is satisfactory. The method of synthesis paracetamol pointed out in this report should be taken into consideration. To summarise, take into consideration all listed issues as well as adopting mentioned recommendations will significantly improve further yields.


Bashpa et al. (2014) ‘Polymorphism of paracetamol: A comparative study on commercial paracetamol samples.’, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 1 (No. 6), pp. [Online]. Available at: https://www.chemijournal.com/vol1Issue6/april2014/3.1.pdf (Accessed: 27.05.2021).

Srabovic et al. (January 2017) ‘Design synthesis and crystallization of acetaminophen’, Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 7(1), pp. 218-230 [Online]. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Samra-Muratovic/publication/312848234_Design_synthesis_and_crystallization_of_acetaminophen/links/588a25a3a6fdccb538f1efe5/Design-synthesis-and-crystallization-of-acetaminophen.pdf (Accessed: 27.05.2021).

(N/A) Graphic no 1 , Available at: http://www.umsl.edu/~orglab/experiments/ACETAMP.html (Accessed: 28.05.2021).

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This Reflective report primarily examines personal experiences based on module at De Montfort University International College. English for Academical Purposes has continued since we began our education. I will focus mainly on the issue related to the preparation and implementation of a group research project. The main goal of this case study is to provide multithreaded pieces of information in the research project and the experience gained during the course of the study. The essay will deal with multiple issues associated with the project background and meritum. Occurrences described, are inherently biased, on personal opinions of the author, and may be far from being objective.

A group of four students randomly paired by the tutor was assigned to the team. The main objective was to conduct a research project; prepare a topic, design a questionary, gather data, and finally present results as an individual pitch. We found that previously acquired skills may contribute to our research project. Our attention was attracted to the actual subject of COVID-19. Relatively fast we elaborate consensus about our topic aim. Consultations with tutors provide constraints of our project. Range of lessons equipped us with the necessary tools. Moreover, we harness previously acquired skills to conduct the process without unnecessary complications. The meta methodology of our research was to gather data based on an online questionary. Democratically we design questionary according to an individual area of interest. Each team member contributes to the design of our survey. My main role was to find participants. Previous experiences in social media marketing campaigns help me to choose an appropriate online script. After a few tests, I successfully published our survey on fifty Facebook groups. The process lasts no longer than half an hour and after one hour we start to gather the first data.

Personally, starting a new project is a very important and exciting event for me. My admiration for creative work is essential. I am conscious of this trait. When things go easy and nice, and everybody enjoys the benefits of the work I often lost my focus to continue the project. It is the usual situation. I prefer to do difficult things rather than those easy. I assume that the world is full of people who can follow the instructions, unfortunately, there are fewer of those who create them. It must be motioned that disappointment is unavoidable in group work and was a part of this project. I do not have a tendency to build tension or sensation around any vices. Furthermore, every single issue found the appropriate solution. Our willingness to cooperate overcame obstructions. Finally, our attitudes lead us toward the successful presentation of results.

Our timing from beginning of project match our afford. Suddenly we figure out that we done our project. Compare to other teams our results were enormous. We realized all of our objectives. We gather the data and we answered on main topic questions. Minor misunderstandings were not significant enough to be reported anywhere. Our group worked with synergy on a common goal, and the general atmosphere and respect for everyone were at a high level.
Main limitation we found in software used to conduct and collect data. Microsoft Forms was choice recommended by our mentor but unfortunately it was not helpful and manufactured multiple issues with data gathered and final analysis. Data analysis was difficult. When we started the process of analysis and preparation of the final presentation in which we were to present the results, we found out that all data had been averaged by Microsoft Forms. The obtained analytical data turned out to be useless for tracing how individual survey participants answered the questions asked. The main obstruction in collaborate was find suitable time slots for all stake holders. Even we collaborate online exclusively it was difficult to find suitable slot for all group members.

To sum up, we successfully answered on our topic subject. Based on our survey we understand participant’s perceptions of COVID-19. Our open question about reasons why people would like to be vaccinated or not provide raw data for further investigation. Tutors equipped us with solid knowledge of how to conduct research projects. Furthermore, practical research projects reach us in new experiences beneficial in our academic career. Brainstorming online and presentation pitch straight to the camera was an unhuman experience. I will not encourage any student to try. It is important to rise up Gibbs (1998), cycle and his learning by doing axiom. The content of this report perfectly fits its assumptions which become model examples of learning through experience.

There is always space to improve what is worth mentioning that our time management skills were insufficient. Therefore, it is the area I will put more attention to in my further projects. I will also take a leading role on further projects to leverage efficiency.

  • Gibbs, G. (1998). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.

Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module code: LIPCF133_2021_503
Assignment: REFLECTIVE REPORT: Write a reflective report based on your experiences during your EAP3 group presentation & research project.

Task Completion
I have checked the brief carefully to ensure I have followed all the instructions.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have written between 720 and 880 words.
I have made reference to Gibb’s (1988) Reflective Cycle and included the reference in the reference list, in Cite Them Right Harvard style.
I have used entirely my own words when paraphrasing, and cited all sources I have used.
I have structured the report correctly and included the following sections: Introduction, Description, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, and Action Plan.
I have not copied ideas or language directly from the example report.

Critical Reflection
I have reflected on what went well and what the reasons for this were.
I have reflected on what did not go so well and what the reasons for this were.
I have mentioned what I learned about myself (positive or negative).
In my action plan I have mentioned what I need to do in order to be better prepared to face this experience in the future.

Writing style
I have checked my work for any errors with academic style.
I have checked my work for grammar errors.

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Buffers Laboratory Report


Dear friends below you can find the laboratory report associated with Buffers. Some of the data may be not easy to read. It happened just because WordPress does not import frames correctly. If you enjoy this report or you need any additional help let me know in comments. I can send you Microsoft Word file!

Buffers Laboratory Report

The major purpose of experiments is to compare the pH of solutions based on theoretical & practical calculations. Weak acids are known for their buffer properties. The experiment aims are to assess the change of pH after the addition of base and acid to the buffer. Moreover, practical laboratory experiments aim to examine destroy buffer after addition excessive volume of acid. Techniques adopted to proceed with experiments are stoichiometry, back titration, and usage of ICE tables. All buffer reactions on addition alkali or acid-based on Henderson-Hasselbalch equations according to M.Senozan (2001).

Buffers are aqueous solutions made from a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base. The major properties of buffers are to decrease the impact of adding acid or alkali on the final pH solution. Therefore, buffers act a role neutralizing agent and significantly stabilized the pH of the solution. The addition of an excessive amount of base or acid destabilizes the buffer solution. PH of the solution is strictly associated with H+ concentration in solution. Conjugate acid & base ratio in solution depends on pKa & pKb values.

Molarity(M) =
ACN % error + x 100% Ka =
HA(aq) H+(aq) + A- (aq) Ka = 10 -pka pH = pKa +log10 []
pH = pKa +log10 []

Table 0.0.1 Reagents list Concentration [M] pKa values Initial value measured by pH probe
Acetic acid / CH3COOH 0,10 4,75 3,31
Sodium acetate / CH3COONa 0,10 7,45
Hydrochloric acid /HCl 0,10
Sodium hydroxide / NaOH 0,10
Deionised water / H2O
Tap water / H2O

Experiment no. 1

Table no. 1
Results experiment no. 1

Buffer Volume of CH3COOH (mL) 0,10 M Volume of CH3COONa (mL) 0,10 M First measured pH Second Measured pH Concordant
pH result Theoretical pH
A 10,0 10,0 4,90 4,91 4,91 4,75
B 15,0 5,0 4,41 4,42 4,42 4,27
C 18,0 2,0 3,97 3,98 3,98 3,79
D 2,0 18,0 5,84 5,85 5,85 5,70
E 5,0 15,0 5,08 5,09 5,09 5,22

Table no. 1.2
Theoretical calculations

Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer Buffer A.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles

pKa (CH3COOH) = according to Reusch (2021) 



pH= 4,75
Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer B.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,015dm3 = 0,0015 moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,005dm3 = 0,0005 moles

Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer C.

Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,018dm3 = 0,0018moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,002dm3 = 0,0002 moles

pH(Buffer C) = 3,79 Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer D.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,002dm3 = 0,0002moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,018dm3 = 0,0018moles

pH(Buffer D) = 5,70
Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer E.
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,005dm3 = 0,0005moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,015dm3 = 0,0015moles

pH(Buffer E) = 5,22

Experiment no. 2

Table no. 2
Results theory vs practice.
Solution Initial measured PH Ph after addition of 2 ml HCl pH after addition of 2ml NaOH
Measured Predicted Measured Predicted
Buffer A 4,88 4,18 4,38 5,28 5,12
Tap water 7,70 2,45 2,67 11,73 11,96

Theoretical callculations
Moles(CH3COOH) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles
Solution was split into two equal tubes.
0,001 moles / 2 = 0,0005 moles
Moles(CH3COONa) = 0,10M * 0,01dm3 = 0,001 moles
Solution was split into two equal tubes.
0,001 moles / 2 = 0,0005 moles
Moles(HCl) = 0,10M * 0,002 dm3 = 0,0002 moles

ICE table & calculation after addition 2ml of 0,10 M HCl. Theoretical calculation.
Moles(HCl) = 0,10M * 0,002 dm3 = 0,0002 moles
Solution was split into two equal tubes.
0,001 moles / 2 = 0,0005 moles

Ice table after addition 2ml of 0,10M HCl. Theoretical calculation. CH3COOH
moles CH3COO-
moles Moles of H+
Initial 0,0005 0,0005 0,0002
Change +0,0002 -0,0002 -0,0002
Equilibrium +0,0007 +0,0003 0

pKa(CH3COOH) = 4,75
Theoretical pH calculation for Buffer A (from experiment no. 1) pH= 4,38

Theoretical calculations. ICE table & calculation
After addition 2ml of 0,10 M NaOH to solution of 10ml tap water and 10ml of mixture in ratio 1:1 CH3COOH & CH3COONa both 0.1 M.

Moles(NaOH) = 0,10M * 0,002 dm3 = 0,0002 moles

Calculation for addition 10 ml tap water and 2 ml of NaOH.
[OH-] = [
[OH-] = 0,0090 M
PH=14 – 2,04

Ice table & calculation
after addition 2ml of 0,10 M HCl to solution of 10ml tap water and 10ml of mixture in ratio 1:1 CH3COOH & CH3COONa both 0.1 M.

ICE table after addition 2ml of 0,10M NaOH. Theoretical calculations. Moles of
CH3COOH Moles of
CH3COO- Moles of
Initial 0,0005 0,0005 0,0002
Change +0,0002 -0,0002 -0,0002
Equilibrium +0,0007 +0,0003 0

Calculation for addition 10 ml tap water and 2 ml of HCl to 10ml of water solution. Total volume equal 12 ml
[H+] = [
[H+] = 0,01666666666666 M
PH=14 – 1,78

Ice table after addition 2ml of 0,10M HCl to 10 ml of tap water. Theoretical calculation.
n(H2O)= 0,01 * 55,5 = 0,555 mol

ICE table after addition 2ml of 0,10M HCl to 10 ml of tap water. Theoretical calculation. HO- Moles of H+
Initial 0,555 0,0002
Change -0,0002 +0,0002
Equilibrium +0,553 +0,002

[H+] = [
[H+] = 0,01666666666666 M
PH=14 – 1,78

Conclusion experiment no 2.
Buffer of weak acid and it conjugant base is solution effectively resist the changes of pH after addition of acidic or basic components. Buffer solution after addition of acid or alkali react with add component and minimalize the overall change in pH. Total change in pH is noticeable but not as significant as in solution without buffer. The experiment reveals that water after addition of base or acid capture the pH of addition. In comparison to buffer solution, it must to be taken to account that addition of base or acid do not change the magnitude of pH dramatically. Water in this case reveal the solvent properties.

Experiment no. 3

Table 3: Effect of dilution of weak acid and weak base

Factor pH of 0,10M ethanoic acid pH of 0,10M sodium acetate
Measured Predicted Measured Predicted
1 2,70 2,87 7,82 8,87
10 3,16 3,37 6,98 8,38
100 3,49 3,87 6,60 7,88

Dilution Factor 1
ethanoic acid

pKa(CH3COOH)= 4,75
Ka = 10-pka
Ka = 10-4,75
Ka = 0,0000177828

pH = -log10(0,00133335216533)
PH=2,87 Dilution Factor 10
ethanoic acid

pKa(CH3COOH)= 4,75
Ka = 10-pka
Ka = 10-4,75
Ka = 0,0000177828

pH = -log10(0,0004216965)
pH=3,37 Dilution Factor 100
ethanoic acid

pKa(CH3COOH)= 4,75
Ka = 10-pka
Ka = 10-4,75
Ka = 0,0000177828


pH = -log10(0,0001333521)

For dilution 1
sodium acetate

pKa (CH3COOH) = 4,75
pKa + pKb = 14
pKb = 14 – pKa
pKb = 14- 4,75
pKb = 9,25
Kb= 10-pKa
Kb= 0,000000000562341325
[OH-] =√Kb[B]
[OH-] =√0,000000000562341325*0,10
[OH-] =√0,0000000000562341
[OH-] = 0,000007498939925083
pOH= -log10(0,000007498939925083)
pOH= 5.1250001256
PH= 14 – 5.1250001256
pH= 8,87
For dilution 10
sodium acetate

[OH-] =√Kb[B]
[OH-] =√Kb []

[OH-] =√0,000000000562341325*0,01
[OH-] =0,000002371373705260310000000000

pOH = -log10(0,000002371373705260310000000000)
pOH = 5,62
pH= pOH + pH
14= 5,62 + pH
pH = 14 – 5,62
pH = 8,38
For dilution 100
sodium acetate

[OH-] =√Kb[B]
[OH-] =√Kb []

[OH-] =√0,000000000562341325*0,001
[OH-] =0,000002371373705260310000000000

pOH =-log10(0,000000749894209205539000000000)
pOH = 6,12

pH= pOH + pH
14= 6,12 + pH
pH = 14 – 6,12
pH = 7,88

Conclusion Experiment no. 3
There is significant difference between theoretical and practical results of pH. The trend with pH deviation rise with dilution factor. According to Senozan (2001) to obtain correct calculation of concentration [H+] we should conduct additional calculation for hydrolysis of A- and ionization of water. Calculation in this report do not take in account cases associated with ionization. However increasing pH differences after water addition indicate that those calculation are vital important for further research. Other causes of differentiation in acquired results are provided in section errors.
Cite Senozan 2001 “As we will show, the discrepancy between the exact and approximate calculation, even with moderate concentrations and PH values not far from the pKa, can be as much as 50%. (When Ka=10^-3 and the acid and base are 0,01M), and many buffer problems solved through Henderson-Hasselbach equation with the usual interpretation of [HA] and [A-] as the initial molarities – do not warrant an answer with more than the single significant figure.” This quote perfectly illustrate the deviation between theoretical and practical experiment.

Experiment no. 4

Table no. 4 Results
Based on data obtain from Mohammed Jenis DMU student.
Volume of NaOH added (ml) Measured pH Volume of NaOH
Added (ml) Measured pH Volume of NaOH
Added (ml) Measured pH Volume of NaOH
Added (ml) Measured pH
0 2,78 12 4,71 24 12,30 36 12,81
2 3,48 14 4,96 26 12,46 38 12,83
4 3,85 16 5,22 28 12,54 40 12,85
6 4,13 18 5,75 30 12,62 42 12,88
8 4,32 20 11,22 32 12,69 44 12,90
10 4,52 22 12,02 34 12,79 46 12,93

Titration curve is represented on Chart no 1.
Ph measured before addition of base equal 2,78. After addition of 10ml NaOH pH increased to 4,52. Addition additional 2 ml of NaOH reach to half equivalence point.It is situation when pH of solution equal to Pka of weak acetic acid. Proportion of conjugate base and conjugate acid are equal. It mean that after addition of total 12ml NaOH the buffer solution was established. The equivalence point should be reach after addition additional 24ml of NaOH based on practical experiment. After equivalence point after addition 46ml of NaOH. Base determine the pH condition.
Conclusion of Experiment no. 4
Compare to theoretical calculations half equivalence point should be reach after addition of 10ml of NaOH and equivalence point after addition of 20ml of NaOH. Theoretical and practical results differ by 20%. Other causes of differentiation in acquired results are provided in section errors.

Errors with additional substances & reading burette.
Calibration of pH probe.
Error with reagents concentrations.
Errors associated with cross contamination with other reagents.
CO2 interaction with reagents.

Each experiment is prone to errors. Some of them are unavoidable. The most obvious are human errors associated with the addition of an inaccurate quantity of reagents. Reading the burette scale & record results with wrong coefficients are two majors of laboratory errors. Moreover, there are issues with an incorrect concentration of substances on reagents. Significant impact on provided results has pH device. Not calibrated pH devices provide fraudulent results. After and before each calculation probe device should be flushed with deionized water. Unclean laboratory equipment influences practical pH results.
All experiments was conducted in open space. Consideration of CO2 reacting with reagents from air must to be taken to account. Even small quantity of CO2 can significantly influence pH according to Senozan 2001. Therefore all conducted experiments are prone to CO2 from air.

pH device errors & concentration
Not calibrated probe device may be the main cause of observed differences. Based on both practical and theoretical calculations from Experiment no. 1 it can be deduced that the average pH difference between theory and practice equal reach 0,104 of pH. Thus the device was not calibrated before conducting experiments it is not possible to judge that the pH probe is the cause of the difference. Concentration can be accused of prone to results. At this stage of the experiment without additional equipment, it is not possible to indicate on the ingredient of difference. The use of litmus papers to assess the pH coefficient in the solution of individual reagents and comparing them with the calibration results of the pH meter would clearly indicate the source of the problem. Adopting to procedure calibration of the probe & check pH with an additional method will increase the precision and will reveal issues associated with the wrong concentration of reagents. However influence of CO2 in air can have more significant influence on results. This lab report do not examine this critical factor.

The main recommendation to improve the experiment is to ensure the concentration of reagents before any experiment will be conducted. Deviation will influence results. Usage of litmus papers to test reagents is wise advice before we start to use pH devices acordnig to Jennings et al. (December 2010). Calibration of pH probe with standardized solutions and comparison of results will offer significantly higher correctness and may help to calculate % error with higher precision. Usage of that two methods will provide a self-check of reagents concentration and measuring devices. Experiments conducted in close systems without access CO2 from air should provide more accurate results.

  • References:
  • William Reusch (2021) Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry, Available at: www2.chemistry.msu.eud/faculty/reusch/virttxjml/acidity2.htm (Accessed: 01.05.2021).
  • Mohammed Jenis, DMU student, Acquired practical data to Experiment no. 4
  • Henry N. & M.Senozan (November 2001) ‘The Henderson-Hasselbach Equation: Its History and Limitation’, Journal of Chemical Education, 78(11), pp.
  • A Jennings et al. (December 2010) Titration and pH Measurement, Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229829145_Titration_and_pH_Measurement (Accessed: 06.05.2021).
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Migraines – Notes MIX

Introduction/ background info / aims section
In the United Kingdom, migraine attacks concern around 10 million people aged 15-69, whilst the total NHS costs of treating this illness is estimated to be £150 per year, and the wider economy costs are even higher (NHS, 2020). To reduce a number of migraine attacks amongst people and to decrease the NHS costs, it is crucial to find a proper medicine.
Migraine is a moderate or severe type of headache that usually appears on one side of a head. The pain tends to be throbbing, pulsating, or debilitating. The migraine can attack occasionally or regularly. The scientists have not yet found the exact cause of migraine. However, there are activities and behaviors that triggers its appearance – for example stress, depression, poor-quality sleep or diet, low blood sugar, smoking, or medicines. Regular migraines have a negative impact on one’s life and can disturb from daily activities. (NHS, 2019)
The aim is to introduce the results of the drug effectiveness testing, the differences between different drugs, and how they impacted people who suffer from migraine. The effective drug is needed to help the impacted by migraines individuals, as well as to lower the NHS costs of treating this illness.


  • NHS (2019) ‘Migraine’. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/migraine/ (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
  • NHS (2020) ‘Improved NHS migraine care to save thousands of hospital stays’. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/2020/01/improved-nhs-migraine-care/#:~:text=In%20total%2C%20it%20is%20estimated,million%20migraine%2Drelated%20sick%20days (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
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Experiment listening…

Chapter 2 live long learning
Listening 1

The best way to learn
Welcome in first class of Educational psychology

Work Benjamin bloom create a taxonomy on cognitive objective.

Lets understand the terms. The taxonomy is a way to classified and organize characteristic about something In biology for instance taxonomy is group and categorise the plant and animals based on similarities and differences and relationships. In psychology and most especially in educational psychology. Blooms interest is with cognitive and cognition both of it refer how we learn & mental processes how we perceive the word and understanding and remembering it.

In 1950’s Bloom was working at university of Chicago and was involved in evaluating examination. He looks for examines was developed by professors at a time and try to see general pattern in a kind of question students will be asked. He try to organize question In logical way then professor can write better exam with clear objective what is expect from students. What he end up was a 6 levels of questioning. Along with sub questions from he develop the taxonomy of cognitive or learning objectives sense been used internationally to create teaching and learning materials. Now what is interesting for you like as Bloom conjurenced learning is high article in nature. That learning progress form simplest to complex. This idea is useful to understand how you interact with knowledge and if applied practical way how to learn better. Blooms taxonomy has been refined. We know that was adopted by one of his partners David Crowfald and one of his students Loran Anderson.

  • The six levels are:
  • Remembering
  • Understanding
  • Applying
  • Analysing
  • Evaluating
  • Creating

We going to spend a little time looking of each of them in term.
I want you to understand that high hierarchy in this terms mean that you have to go to first
level before you go to second level and so on. You have to remember before you can to understand. And you have to understand before you can apply. So the simplest cognitive level is to remember and the most complex cognitive level is to creating as we look on each of this level in term. I try to put them in different real word context. To help you to understand. The first and simplest cognitive level in a taxonomy is active remembering. We have two different types of memory. First type is short term memory such you hear the name or number or statistic or remember it for short period of time. We often use short term memory when throughout the party we was introduce to someone whose name we can not remember half a hour later. We often use short term memory to store information is not usefully. Or we not sure that will be useful. It will be quite different for example if will being introduce to our boss. It is a partly the matter of attending or paying attention and the person name in this last situation is more likely to go into long term memory. Long term memory is a store of information there is more useful for us or it build up because we encounter certain ideas in details over and over again. So the first level of the taxonomy remembering. It is basically retrieving knowledge form long term memory. Recognising and recalling things that we consciously try to remember. Other times the exam simple questions asking you to remember fact or often the most boring questions. In this case you will ask to completely repeat something what you memorised such a list of dates or chemical formula. It is important to remember that it is not particularly high level of cognition. Most people can remember Einstain famous formulas E=mc2 but very few people understand what it means.

The second level of taxonomy is understanding. When we understand something we construct the meaning from something what we learned. The contrast it with first level of remembering. Let me give you an example I can teach you a phrase in Chinese or in another language you do not know. And I can get you to remember it. But you will not have to understand it. So understanding is higher cognitive level and allow us to interpret clarify paraphrase and translate ideas. When we understand something we can find examples and classified new ideas. Understanding helps to make predictions and draw conclusions. In the exam you will ask to show understanding something when you see the word of explain on the start of question. Go back to Einstain. The simple explanation of E=mc2 is that energy and matter are different forms of the same thing. Energy can be turn into matter and matter into energy. One matter travel in extremally high speed. But using Einstain formula E=mc2 times the velocity of light times the veolocity of light the amount of energy can be calculated. When you understand something you can move to third cognitive level applying. Applying quite simply involve executing or carrying out a procedure of something. Again we do it everyday we all spend a lot of time of our computers and we spend a lot of time on procedures like answering emails. Downloading files, Searching internet.

I also know you think this is both natural easy, but these are procedure that with likely miss the fire grandparents perhaps your grandparents. In an exam content is a typical apply question will be used to formula dissolve of math problem like calculating the area of a triangle. The fourth level of the cognitive taxonomy is analysing. Analysing is breaking information in the parts and then deciding how these parts relate to each other as well as overall structure or purpose. Often this process of analysing includes deciding what is important and what is not important. For example, if I ask to analyse the cases of first of 4 considering both are the opposing forces, you might decide that factors included, the invasion of Kuweit (name of city), the protection of oil resources and the punishment of an unfriendly dictator on one side and historical grievances and the desire to expand territory on the other. Among this, you will have to consider which are more or less important in the decision-making processes of those involve the staring the war. Given this process you can see how analysing is a higher-level skill you need to remember, understand and be able to apply what have you learnt. The fifth level of cognitive cognitive taxonomy is evaluating. Like the other cognitive levels this is something we each do every day. When we evaluate we are making judgment of some kind often based on criteria on set of standard apply to particular situation. For example, if you order a meal at the restaurant you might evaluate the meal based on presentation, price, taste, quality and quantity of the ingredients and so on. At the exam situation you will be probably be asked to evaluate product or process or an event and either develop the criteria in yourself or using the Set of criteria you’ve already learnt. The sixth and most complex level of cognitive is creating. When we create, we are using most if not all of the previous levels, remembering, understanding, applying, analysing and evaluating together. We illustrate these other cognitive levels by producing something new and original. In fine arts may be a painting, the sculpture, a dance, a play or a video. Similarly, in an engineering courses you might be asked to create a robot, or a design new car. Let’s take the example of the new car to see how you might to put in place all the cognitive processes. First, you are going to remember what you know about cars, different kinds of cars and machines that move. At the second level you are going to understand what makes cars move. Something that troubles easily over the surface such as wheels and some kind of power sources like an electric or gas engine. You could go on to the fourth level of applying and show what you know by drawing some designs for a new car. Based on your drawings, you might analyse what makes cars work, and go to the fifth stage of evaluating. As you evaluate your ideas and compare them to what was been done in the previous cars. You will have inside and how you can make a better car. All this prepares you to the final stage – creating. Here you bring together everything you know and produce something new. And then you’ve done it. You’ve created a new kind of car. Going back to the example of Einstein E equals mc2. The final cognitive level of creation was the invention of nuclear reactors for power and less fortunately nuclear weapons for war. For everything I’ve said so far, you probably realise that we don’t go through all these cognitive levels with every problem with confronting with. 10.30 We even get to stage of remembering information that is better left in shorter memory. Even it will be overwhelming to try to remember, understand, apply, analyse and evaluate everything what we common to contact with. Later on, go on to create something new. Yeah, recognising and understanding these cognitive levels are important. Each time you learn something new, you should be questioning whether or not you understand it and whether or not it could apply to another concept of situation. So, think about something that you know or think you know, really well, it could be something you were studying, or something you do for fun such is a sport. Consider what level of cognition you are and what you could do to learn about it at the deeper level.

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Plagiarism Essay

The English Oxford Dictionary defines plagiarism as the use of someone else’s intellectual property without references. However, the concept of plagiarism goes far beyond this narrow definition. The purpose of this document is to summarize Thomas (2020) presentation related to the wide issue of plagiarism.

According to Thomas (2020) plagiarism can be divide into deliberate fraudulent or unintentional. Some scholars consciously and determinedly commit the act of plagiarism. Such unfair practices deserve severe condemnation. However, students can plagiarise unintentionally. According to Thomas (2020) lack of academic skills may lead to unintentional abuse of academic rules. Furthermore, Thomas (2020) pointed out that deficiencies in writers’ workshops can lead to committing unintentional violations. In addition, Thomas (2020) lists areas in the writing process where scholars should put precautions in order to avoid plagiarism. The most serious consequence for a student may be expulsion from the university. Whether the plagiarism was a deliberate act or not, the author of the plagiarism may be held responsible.
Insufficient paraphrasing skills are one of the main determinants that may result in a research article being qualified as plagiarism. Thomas (2020), explains a number of other practices such as improper citation. A common factor seems to be the lack of adequate skills in creating content. Psychological stress also plays a significant role. Students who procrastinate with material preparation may not have enough time to finish an article, therefore may be prone to the temptation of plagiarizing.
Educational institutions are equipped with software that compares the content in terms of their similarity. However, the decisive vote in assessing whether a student has committed an offense rests with the teacher. The professor based on the previous work of the student can deduce whether the student’s work is a material created by him. Some of the students may not be aware of procedures related to the proper citation of source content. Committing plagiarism may result from an inappropriate technique of note-taking. The reasons why students commit an act of plagiarism vary from the lack of awareness and understanding concept of plagiarism.
In conclusion. Awareness of the serious implications of the misappropriation of someone else’s intellectual property is essential to an academic career. Whether the action is deliberate or the result of the student’s lack of skill, the consequences of plagiarism can be prominent. Plagiarism may be easily avoided if all credits are granted to authors appropriately. Time management techniques and proper executing action plan on each step of the creative process are essential. Correct note-taking techniques may be a remedy for plagiarism. An updated database of all sources, proper citation of every single idea is beneficial to the majority of academic stakeholders.

Thomas, S. Understanding Plagiarism. De Montfort University, 2020.

Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module code: LIPCF133_2021_503
Assignment: LECTURE SUMMARY 1; Write a summary based on the lecture notes that you took during the guest lecture – Understanding Plagiarism and How It Can Be Avoided.

Task Requirements
I have completed this cover sheet and checklist and attached it to my essay.
I have checked the brief carefully to ensure I have followed all the instructions.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.
I have written between 450 and 550 words.

My introduction identifies the aims of the lecture and the main points covered.
The main body summarises the content of the lecture.
I have not included any minor details from the lecture, or any information that was not part of the lecture.
Referencing and Paraphrasing
I have referenced all sources, including the lecture itself, both in-text and in a reference list.
I have checked that my referencing style matches the Cite Them Right Harvard referencing guide (available on Blackboard, in the Academic Referencing folder).
I have not copied language directly from the lecturer’s Power point slides; I have paraphrased.

Writing Style
I have checked my work for any errors with academic style.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.

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Causes of emigration – Essay

Ascending six years from 2004 to 2010 result in 2.4 million new Polish immigrants move to UK, Polish Central Statistical Office (2009). The essay’s aim is to reveal that political decisions are the main causes of emigration. According to Home Office report, Dustmann et al. (2003) estimation of net emigration from new EU members to the UK should oscillate between 5.000 to 13.000. Tony Blairs’ cabinet critically underestimates the emigration potential of the new eight members of the European Union. Emigration into UK can be assessed by many methods. For purpose of this essay, International Passenger Survey (IPS) will be used. The main coefficient of this survey is to screen those who intend to stay on British territory for at last one year. According to IPS survey net immigration of non-British citizens reaches an average of 495,000 per year (2010-2016).

Political circumstances
The beginning of emigration to UK begun in the early1900’s. pauper soviet peasantry search opportunities outside of the communist sovereign areas. This period is associated with refugees who escaped from communist repression. The second noticeable wave of emigration occurred after 1939 when Polish soldiers who reside outside of their homeland decide to settle in the United Kingdom. Political decisions at Yalta Conference 1945 increased the political influence of Joseph Stalin. Communism doctrine was forced. After 59 years, the aftermath of Winston Churchill’s decision to sacrifice Poland had consequences. The major causes of the massive polish exodus to UK are economical, Anderson et al. (2006). However, there are many others Podgorzanska (2016), stated that Polish citizens experienced decades of difficulty with traveling. Multiple causes, combine together trigger emigration. Open borders, no passport requirements, lack of bureaucracy, no visas requirement become a tipping point. However, nor of it can occur without political consent.

Asylum seekers & Refugees
Wars, repression & unstable political situation in the home country are the main causes for refugees to emigrate. According to United Nation convention relating to the Status of Refugees adopted in 1951. The definition of refugee was as follow. “He can no longer, because the circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail himself of the protection of the country of his nationality” United Nations Human Rights Office of The High Commissioner (1951). The document becomes common law for all signatories at 1954. UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees pointed out that many refugees are people from colloquially called Third World countries. According to UNHCR Global Trends Report (2019), there were 133,094 refugees in UK. Hatton (2004), claim that some of the refugees successfully escaped from temporary settlement camps. Refugees’ temporary law privileges are reasons to return to their countries. A 13-year research study realized by Thielemann (2003) on 20 countries reveals that factors such as employment level have a vital role for Asylum seekers. Foreigners consider choosing the country of final destination based on the high level of acceptance of asylum petitions. Some refugee camp settlers decide to illegally trespass borders with neighboring countries. Therefore, for part of refugees camps are temporary, and obtain status is used to leverage chances to transit to their target country. The attractiveness of the British labor market leads some the people to illegally trespass British border. That type of emigration is associated with the destabilization of political in other countries. Refuges and people who experienced repressions in their home country decide to change their lives. Therefore, they often risk their lives in order to find safely environment Stevens, (2003). 1980 result in 150.000 new asylum seekers migrating per year cited Hatton& Williamson (2004).

The imperial influence of the British Crown lead to English language dissemination. The Aftermath of British conquers was English indoctrination. The colonial history of the British Empire is one of the causes of non-EU emigration. The highest ratio of non-EU emigrants is geographically associated with the previous British colonies. Cheap transport, international money transfers, and exploding access to the internet vitally influence new emigrants to examine and validate their opportunities at homeland.

The phenomenon of globalization is the catalyst for many changes in the environment. Those decisions influence the fate of countries and continents. The economic factor is an undeniable major incentive to relocation. However, the development of economics is under control of the government. Conflicts escalation is a domain that belongs to countries, not to immigrants. No massive human movement around the globe occurred without political decisions. The attached pieces of evidence and history lead to the obvious conclusion that the root causes of emigration are strictly political.

  • References
    Dustmann et al. / Home Office (2003) The impact of EU enlargement on migration flows, Online Report 25/03: Home Office. at: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctpb21/reports/HomeOffice25_03.pdf Viewed 05.03.2021 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Office for National Statistic (23 August 2018) International Passenger Survey: quality information in relation to migration flows, Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/methodologies/internationalpassengersurveyqualityinformationinrelationtomigrationflows (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • R. Podgorzanska (2016) Emigration of Poles to Great Britain in 2004-2016. Implications for Polish-British relations, Available at: https://wnus.edu.pl/pdp/pl/issue/382/article/6313/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Central Statistical Office in Poland (2009) Information on the size and directions of emigration from Poland in the years 2004 – 2008, Available at: https://stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/lud_infor_o_rozm_i_kierunk_emigra_z_polski_w_latach_2004_2008.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Anderson et al. 2006. Fair Enough? Central and East () Fair enough?, Available at: https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/PR-2006-Changing_Status_Fair_Enough.pdf (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • UNHCR (2019) GLOBAL TRENDS FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN 2019, Available at: https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2019/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • T.J Hatton (2004) Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe, Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=571727 (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • E. Thielemann ( 2003) Between Interests and Norms: Explaining Burden‐Sharing in the European Union, Available at: https://academic.oup.com/jrs/article-abstract/16/3/253/1549805?redirectedFrom=fulltext (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Stevens D. ( 2003) The migration of the Romanian Roma to the UK : a contextual study, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).
  • Hatton J. T. ( 2003) Hatton, T.J. and J.G. Williamson. Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Policy in Europe. Retrieved, Available at: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/8401/ (Accessed: 05.03.2021).

Name: Marcin Krynski
Module: LIPC1130_2021_503 English for Academic Purposes
Tutor: Colin Danson
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write an assignment about the causes of emigration.
Word Count: 763
Date: 05.03.2021

Please attach a copy of this checklist to your assignment

Module code: LIPC1120,1130, 201, 202
Assignment: WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3; Write a Cause-Effect Essay on the topic of Immigration in the United Kingdom. You may choose to focus on causes, or to focus on effects.

Task Requirements
I have included the DMUIC cover sheet.
I have followed the correct formatting guidelines (see brief).
I have NOT used any language generating software, such as Grammarly.

I have used entirely my own words when paraphrasing.
I have used a range of the cause/effect language from unit 6.3.
I have used at least 4 academic sources, and at least one source introduced in unit 6.2.

I have acknowledged all my sources BOTH in-text AND in a reference list.
I have checked my referencing style against my notes/the Cite Them Right Harvard style referencing guide.
I have used a mix of integral and non-integral citation, and a range of reporting verbs.

Writing style
My introduction includes a hook, connecting information and thesis statement.
My main body paragraphs begin with a topic sentence, and focus on one main point.
My conclusion summarises the main points of my essay and finishes with a final comment.
I have written in academic style, and checked my work for any errors.
I have checked my work for grammar and vocabulary errors.
I have checked the assignment brief carefully to make sure I have addressed all of the requirements.

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