Labolatory Raport

Labolatory Raport

Introduction:


The main domain of this lab report is to introduce experimental procedures in chemistry while conceptualizing the extraction techniques, volumetric analysis and wet chemistry and introducing different equipment being used frequently in chemistry. This report therefore is based on results of experiment to identify the acid neutralizing capacity of antacid tablet and identify the number of moles of HCL neutralized by the antacid tablet and NaOH. The report also identified the number of tablets required to bring the HCL in the stomach to a more normal level and identify possible sources of error in this experiment.


Aim:

This experiment is aimed to identify the acid neutralizing capacity of antacid tablet and identify the real neutralizing power of tablet. The experiment was also aimed to identify the number of tablets required to neutralize the HCL in the stomach to more normal level. The acid neutralizing capacity of antacid tablet is examined by converting it into fine powder, adding HCL and add methyl orange indicator to note the change is color. NaOH to an accurately known volume was added and noted the color change at the end-point. The neutralizing capacity of antacid tablet is measured through back titration technique.
Results Presentation:

  • Items Tablet 1 (Bisodol) Tablet 2 (Renee)
  • Mass of tablet 3.6 3.84
  • Mass of Crushed Tablet 1.28 1.19
  • Concentration of HC (mol dm-3): 0.5 0.5
  • Volume of HCl added to the flask (ml): 39.4 38.9
  • Initial Volume 0.2 0.5
  • Volume in the End 39.6 39.4
  • Concentration of NaOH solution (mol dm-3) : 0.5 0.5
  • Volume of NaOH added to the flask (ml): 16.2 12.8

Calculations:


The amount (number of moles) of acid neutralised by the antacid can be determined by the total number of moles of HCl added minus the number of moles that were neutralized by the NaOH. Calculations based on findings of experiments are summarized as under.
Moles of HCL Added (nHCL) = CHCL * VHCL in ml
1,000
Bisodol (Tablet 1) = 0.5 * (39.4 / 1,000) in ml
= 0.0197 ml
Renee (Tablet 2) = 0.5 * (38.9 / 1,000) in ml
= 0.01945 ml
Moles of NaOH required for Back-Titration (nNaOH) = CNaOH * VNaOH in ml
1,000
Bisodol (Tablet 1) = 0.5 * (16.2 / 1,000) in ml
= 0.0081 in ml
Renee (Tablet 2) = 0.5 * (12.8 / 1,000) in ml
= 0.0064 in ml
Moles of Acid Neutralized = nHCL – nNaOH
Bisodol (Tablet 1) = 0.0197 – 0.0081
= 0.0116 ml
Renee (Tablet 2) = 0.01945 – 0.0064
= 0.01305 ml

Calculate the number of moles of NaOH used (C=n/v)
Number of moles of NaOH (Bisodol) = Concentration in mol/dm * Volume in dm3
= 0.5 * 16.2 (1/1000)
= 0.5 * 0.0162
= 0.0081 moles of NaOH
Number of moles of NaOH (Renee) = Concentration in mol/dm * Volume in dm3
= 0.5 * 12.8 (1/1000)
= 0.5 * 0.0128
= 0.0064 moles of NaOH
Calculate the number of moles of excess HCL added before titration
Moles of HCL added before titration (Bisodol) = Concentration in mol/dm * Volume in dm3
= 0.5 * 39.4 (1/1000)
= 0.5 * 0.0394
= 0.0197 moles of HCL
Moles of HCL added before titration (Renee) = Concentration in mol/dm * Volume in dm3
= 0.5 * 38.9 (1/1000)
= 0.5 * 0.0389
= 0.0195 moles of HCL
Calculate the number of moles of HCl that was neutralised by the antacid
Moles neutralized by Antacid = Number of moles of excess acid (#2) – number of moles HCl neutralized by NaOH (#1)
Bisodol = 0.0197 – 0.0081
= 0.0116 moles
Renee = 0.0195 – 0.0064
= 0.0131 moles
Calculate the number of moles of HCl neutralised by 1 antacid tablet
Number of Moles neutralized by 1 antacid tablet are same calculated in required 3 above as 1 tablet was used and requirement 3 calculated the moles neutralized by antacid.
Therefore:
Number of moles of HCI neutralised by 1 Bisodol tablet = 0.0116 moles
Number of moles of HCI neutralised by 1 Renee tablet = 0.0131 moles
How many tablets of the antacid will be required to bring the concentration of HCl in the stomach to a more normal level?
HCl concentration in Hyper Acidic Stomach = 0.030M
Volume of Liquid in Stomach = 250 mL or
= 0.25 L
Number of Moles of HCl in hyper acidic stomach = Volume * HCl Concentration (molarity)
= 0.250 * 0.030
= 0.075 moles
Number of moles nuteralized by 1 Bisodol tab. = 0.0116
Number of tablets required = 0.075 / 0.0116
= 0.65 tablets
Number of moles nuteralized by 1 Renee tab. = 0.0131
Number of tablets required = 0.075 / 0.0131
= 0.57 tablets

(Note: The HCl concentration in a hyper acidic stomach is 0.030 M. The volume of liquid in the stomach is 250 mL)

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Low proficiency in English as significant barrier to success for international students. Essay.

EAP

Low proficiency in English language is the most significant barrier to success for international students studying in UK higher education. “Language ability is possibly the most important challenge affecting international students in British Higher education.” (AISA report, 2014, p323). High-grades scored, in pre-entry university exams, do not guarantee success in a further career. Partial consent to the thesis statement is obvious. English fluency may be a significant barrier to obtain an academic degree. However, other factors may have a major impact on student success. Most popular English certificates; TOFEL and IELTS may be insufficient guidelines to measure further student success. Nor for students either for lecturers. Screening tests, do not obstruct access to academic careers. On the other hand, the majority of studies do not require the highest level of English proficiency.

Not verifiable pre-admission results, encourage universities to organize new nodes of learning for foreign students. One of the requirements to enter a British University is to achieve sufficient results in IELTS screen examination. Eyere – the former head of English at St. Johns believes that it is not a reliable tool to predict student’s performance at University. Students are often couched to pass the test, or even cheat to get desirable results. Lack of English proficiency has a significant role in student thrive and survival. However the education process has a wider context, it is influenced by multiple factors often not easy to indicate. Morrison (1987, p156) defines study skills “as strategies and methods to efficiently manage learning”. Universities arrange into their programs new subject. English for Academic Purposes. It covers many further associated with academic skills and learning methods. In the past few British universities conducted research on students who attend. Results reveal, that students who attend the EAP lessons, gained significantly better grades, compared to those who not attend (Leech, 2015). On the contrary. Researchers did not conduct screenings on representative and a qualitative sample of students.

A severe issue for international students is the written part of modules, especially writing an assignment. Incorrect usage of English in assignments can be induced by the mother tongue of foreign students. According to American linguist Kaplan (1966), in his theory of Contrastive Rhetoric. The scientist claimed that the student’s native language influences the writing structure in a second tongue. Kaplan differential four cultural patterns emerge both from culture and various languages. Those patterns can reveal the student’s ethnic and cultural background. Kaplan claims that those works can provide a new view on the subject. Work and claims conducted by Kaplan were widely criticized.

Non-native student’s adaptability to rapid learning may be underestimated. The Association International Student Assimilation (AISA) in their report revealed “language ability is possibly the most important challenge affecting international students in British Higher education.” (AISA report, 2014, p323). Both universities and non-profit organizations conducted screening in order to find a satisfactory resolution for all stakeholders. They discovered that students use the advantage of technology at University. Script like google translator has widely used some students pay for professional writing services. One of the requirements to enter a British University is to achieve sufficient results in the IELTS test. However, Eyere – the former head of English at St. Johns believes that it is not a reliable tool to predict student’s performance at University, because students are often coached to pass exams or even cheat. Under those circumstances, blame to technology is inadequate.
Essay constraints the subject to three provided text sources. The majority of those documents are acute outdated, do not represent current reality. Partially it is agreeable, that low English proficiency can be a severe obstruction to obtain an academic degree. It is also obvious that some of the faculty required higher-level English proficiency than others. An unavoidable fact is that students should possess perfect English skills. Furthermore, international students who study subjects; chemistry, mathematical or physical do not aim to upgrade their English skills to the same level as English Literature students do. Perfect English fluency is useful further. On the other hand, some of the students will use gained academic skills, ones to prepare dissertation work. or never if they decide to study art. Nonetheless provided source materials do not indicate the final student success or defeat. Despite lecturers complaint, universities do not rise the test difficulty rather adopt new program ease the learning for international students. All of those circumstances lead to the conclusion that students’ attitude has a more significant role than entry English proficiency.

Reference list:

  • Kotter, 2015. Language: Still a barrier to success for international students. UK Higher Ed. 54, pp. 56
  • Marten, J.S, 2003. Analysing the Contrasts in Academic Writing between Native and International Students in a UK Context. Vol. 4, pp. 122-37
  • Vance, F 2016. Finding International Student Success. Belfast: Queens University Press.
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Surveys essay

Name: Marcin Krynski
Module: LIPC1130_2021_503 English for Academic Purposes
Word Count: 543
Date: 23.04.2021

The survey conducted by Danish Gunther Eysenbach (2007) found that the online survey received a 6% higher response rate than its classic paper counterpart. The sudden systematic development of the Internet has an impact on every area of our lives, research methodology follows this trend. I completely agree with the thesis that online surveys are an effective form of gathering data from the target group. Moreover, online surveys seem to outclass the paper ones, offering possibilities that are not possible on a paper medium.

Hypothesis that online surveys can significantly compete and even outclass their paper counterparts. Although pencil surveys probably always will stay as an emergency solution according to Carlos Mendes (2018). In this essay, I will mainly consider the workload that the researcher spends on preparing the survey and the potential benefits. Arguments such as conversion from a survey, calculated by the respondent’s response rate, are paramount. Time and costs are overall factors that need to considerate in quantitative researches. (Kenny, cited in Eysenbach 2007) & (Burdock, cited in Eysenbach 2007) in their works find the same conclusion that online surveys are characterized by a significantly lower cost of obtaining respondents’ answers than their paper versions. (Barker, cited in McDonald 2015) stated that the use of online surveys in large-scale quantitative research is an alternative. However, he pointed out that it is worth securing research using two simultaneously available methods, giving the respondents a choice of suitable forms. Also (Burdock, cited in Eysenbach 2007), pointed to the rightness of choosing online surveys as those that reduce the cost of conducted research. Time act a critical role in many studies. Three scientists; Mendes (2018) & McDonald, & Richardson (2015), agree that online surveys are ahead of paper surveys when it comes to getting respondents’ answers. Surveys published via a link sent by e-mail or published on social networking sites receive immediate results. Speed, flexibility, and accessibility of online surveys is certainly their greatest advantage. There are many more positives Mendes (2018), articulated that immediate and pre-analyzed results obtained in real-time, obtained thanks to specialized software, make online surveys superior to paper surveys. Considering the issue of environmental protection. Physically printed questionnaires are costly and an environmental burden compared to non-physical forms. In addition, not all participants will complete paper questionnaires printing materials are prone to supply waste before they reach the target audience. In this case both documents and interviewer effort are pointless. Mendes (2018) pointed out that online surveys are characterized by an unlimited amount of space, which is particularly important in the case of open questions in which the respondent would like to answer the questions in detail and comprehensively.

Summarizing all of the provided pieces of evidence reveal that online questionnaires are more effective then their paper protoplasts. Online questionnaires are flexible and allow the inclusion of interactive content such as audiovisual material. Adaptability in online surveys is limited only by the imagination of their creators. Interactive online content is more engaging to respondents. The more engaging the content of the survey, the greater the chance of encouraging the participant to complete the survey and receive valuable data for analysis. Bind all of those arguments lead to the conclusion that online questionaries have significantly higher efficiency compared to paper ones.

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Customer Service level 2 NCFE

Question to answer to get certification in Customer Service level 2 NCFE

Job need to be done before 28 February 2019.

[x]Question 1.Explain the purpose and scope of customer service. (1.1)

Purpose and scope of customer service are strictly correlated. Purpose should always provide to prospects the highest possible quality products and services. To deal with it, organisation need to develop and thrive practices how to provide an efficient, polite service before, during and after finished transaction. This process should be monitored to sure that customers are treated with full respect. If this criteria is not meet. purpose should also deal with eventual customer complains problem and feedback effectively.

Scope of customer service can have a wide spectrum of impact for employees and customers. The effect we can split on two main ways positive and negative. Positive efficient scope of customer service can have a positive knock on-effect for increase the quantity orders for cooperating supplier and local community can grow. Obvious is that in this case the customers will repeat orders and recommend our services. The loyalty of prospects will grow as well. Positive effect will affected on further employers carrier option and will gave a confidence of save the job place.  

On the other hand the negative impact can lead in straight way to domino effect. Falling down quantity of orders and revenue then summary can lead to bankruptcy all supplier chain.

[x]Question 2. Define the term “service offer”.

We define the meaning of the term “service offer” as the upper limit and extension of what our organization can offer to customers.

We define the meaning “service offer” like a range extent and limit of product and services offered to our prospects.

[x]Question 3. Explain the value of a ‘service offer’ to an organisation. (1.3)

Service offer can be one of factor reveling to customer difference between two organisations. Many companies change their offer following the current trends. Even the organisation serving humanity the believe & religion on a period of ages change the idea and interpretations of ancient holy books. To be more accurate and up to date. The most value of service offer for organisation is to set high standard of customer service. Secure and maintain customer loyalty can attract to organisation more business.

[x]Question 4a. Explain the importance of delivering consistently high-quality customer service. (1.4)

There are many value for organisation in keeping high quality standard of customer service the obvious one is that our customer is happy. If our customer is happy then he can recommend our organisation to other new prospects. Trace this way of thinking we also build customer loyalty. If we build loyalty we can reduce the quantity of complaints. More happy customers make a good portray and image of the organisation.

[x]Question 4b. Describe the implications of not delivering consistently high quality customer service. (1.4)

The implication can be lowering constance number of new orders. Loosing company reputation.  Q

Implication of not delivering consistently high quality customer service in longer period of time can have a huge consequence for company revenue. The most visible and easy to track signal is inscresed level Organisation should prevent lowering customer service standard. This process can be done for example by introduce and outsource the research of customer satisfaction.

[x]Question 5. Explain the importance of keeping up the to date with knowledge of competitors’ activites. (1.5)

Importance of keeping up to date knowledge about competitors actions can help organisation to understand changes on the market can improve and upgrade existing or extend organisation offer. On the market we have wide range of organisations. To answer on this question and explain i would like to use the idea of governments to mark it also like a classic bussines organiasation. Still probably one of the biggest players are just  governments. In today reality even as huge institutions need to face situation that moving business from one country to another is relative easy. If Governments level up the taxes level the organisations can move between countrys in a period of days just to optymalise the paid tax level. So even as huge institution need to monitor the competitors (other countrys) activities to make shure that offer(tax level) is up to date.

[x]Question 6. Explain the barrier to providing effective customer service. Give three examples. (1.6)

  1. Hard to mange procedures can be obstruction for serving to customer in the best manners possible.
  2. Inadequate and insufficient customers service systems unsuitable to customers needs. 
  3. Poor communication with internal or external customers. 

[x]Question 7.  Describe the futures for effective follow-up services. (1.7)

Describe the futures for effective follow-up services

Futures for introduce an effective follow-up services can be for competitors a differentiating on organisation list of. Action that are taken after the transaction can and have big impact on future and current relationship with customer. Following up services is not treated as a standard in many countries, we will introduce it like a last step of good customer service practice. Follow-up services should build a good relationship with customers increase their loyalty reduce the potential complaints. Fast answering and resolving all reveled issues can enhance the company reputation. For sells forces in big corporation follow-up services are treat like an additional chance to sell called (upselling). Effective follow up services always need to meet and exceed customer expectations in real situation it is mean that organisation should build positive reliable and truthful image. Meeting deadlines and always give an update to our customer is vital.

Personal digression:

In today reality we have many additional offer, an then ideas how to mange effective follow-up services.  Where are follow-up services are leading? A good example should be SaaP. Resolving the shortcut is  meaning Service as aProduct.  And in this place magic happen because the standard idea what is service and product start to be blur.  We can treat customer with respect and build his satisfaction treating him with well prepared standard, however customer did not need to know (or do not like to know) that this special treatment is just full-filling by the human the computer program, prepared by neuron network program.

[x]Question 8. Describe how sales and consumer-related legislation and regulations affect the delivery of customer service. Base your answers on the Data Protection Act and the other pieces of of sales- and consumer-related legislation. (2.1) 3 Examples.

Data Protection Act 1998:

In this legislation customer, have the legal right to have their information protected. DPA dealing with all issue about customer related data in both digital and paper form.

Consumer Rights Act 2015:

This act covers the supply of goods. The product or service must be satisfactory quality, must be fit to a particular purpose, match the description sample or model. After purchase, the customer has the right to reject goods and claim to repair or replace in order to get a product or service suitable.

Consumer Protection Act 1987

The meritum of this act is about that displaying misleading information is an offence. Customer have legal rights about misleading information and can claim compensation if goods are faulty.

It is important to prepare and provide the service-offer not breaching or removing any legal or statutory customer rights.

[x]Question 9a. Describe how health and safely legislation affects customer delivery in your industry. Give two examples. 2.2

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 legislation have wide impact for each organisation. The main meaning of this act is to show a good practice how to prevent possible health and safety issues.

The first one is important for small firms and determinate that if there are more then 5 employees the employer must keep an official record of its risk assessments and have a formal health and safety policy.

In the reception of each company usually, we have displayed information about health and safety. The duty each employee is to report each of potential unsafe situation and near misses.

  1. In my industry any kind of chemicals like acids should be well labeled and correct badge should be displayed on each side of the package.
  2. Each visitor or new employee auditing the site must to follow internal organisation procedures about using health and safety protective equipm

[x]Question 9b. Describe how environment legislation affects the customer service delivery in your industry. Give two examples. 2.2

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations 2013 affect how we deal with electric waste in our company. The most disposable items are segregate and put in correct prepare bin. The unknown electrical waste is described and labeled like unknown electrical waste.

Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005. Affect each part of our manufacturing processes. Contaminated liquids and after chemicals packages should be separated. All COSHH instruction should be followed. Chems manufacturer label the barrels and put correct signs to easy determinate what kind of substance is stored inside.

[x] Question 10. Explain how ethical consideration affect customer service. 2.3

There are many ethical considerations that can affect customer service. Some of the company have own policies on how to treat customers. Many of organisations must to provide equality and diversity in treating customers. The law force organisation to implement this kind of policies. The situation seems to start to be different when we start to consider how religion believes affect customer service. In my opinion, the most important practice put in life is a supporting ethical and sustainable scheme, avoiding suppliers who exploit their workforce or use unsustainable or unacceptable methods. This is an important factor for many people who experienced modern slavery method. Environmental 

[x]Question 11. Explain how equality legislation affects customer service. 2.4

British Empire has a long history and there are multiple of dark moments in it. Conquered other undiscovered lands, building colonies capturing the slavers and forcing it to work was a normal and acceptable practice. In my opinion, the tipping point was the moment when women emancipation started. Female point of view affect for politics dominated by a male in positive way.  The most important legislation about equality was put in live by the Equality Act 2010.  In today meaning the equality is not just about treating everyone in the same way. Is rather about recognize each person like an individual human and treat it in a way is expected and appropriate. The equality act protects all people from discrimination due to their: age, disability or impairment, gender & gender reassingmnet , marriage or civil partnership, pregnancy or maternity, race,religion of beliefs, sexual orientation.

Personal digression:

Conclusion is that one day in future we will not have permission to recognize somebody gender. It will be against the law to call somebody with the prefix; she or he if we will not get permission to do it. I am working on my book whrere i consider the idea to eliminate the compulsory use of gender. Law is a law but the fact is that we are face many of examples where and when law is not working. For example questionaries about job we need to tick box. MALE or FEMALE. Also in many occasion i saw the tickbox to mark MRS, MISS, somebody forgotten to put neutral prefix MS? Also from the medical point of view, the human race (skin color) is important to ordinate a correct treatment. We can not change the biology some kind of drugs can be fatal for people with given color of skin and this is not a story about equality is a story about genetic. This is important to equal and evaluate many factors to improve and develop in order to elevate the human race up.

[x]Question 12. Describe how The Data Protection Act affects the use and storage the customer information. 2.5

The supreme legislative act regulating use and storage customer information is Data Protection Act 1998 Shortcut (DPA). This act explain how organisation should deal with customer data and other important confident information.  The most important conclusions are to keep and store information as securely as it is possible. It means that places where data are stored must be secure physically for unauthorized access.  If data are stored on digital medium the place where the server is located should be protected as well. The organisation should prevent the breach of digital security using the appropriate antiviruses and firewalls in meaning time the external audit for cybersecurity should be introduce in regular basic. Using the login passwords and granting the permission to sensitive data only for selected employees should be obvious. DPA also state about appropriate use of customers data, the most important example of missuses customer data is just sell it without customer consent.

Personal Digression:

This is vital important how organisations use customer data and how valuable this information are. The mass scale Internet flow information, invigilation introduced by systems approved by governments like United States of America and United Kingdom are fact. It seems to be that cooperation USA and UK in this issue is successful in the name fight against terrorism. But the fact is different even a low level of IT specialist know how to hide and crypt all of communication. All of us using Internet are invigilated by scripts and other automatic artificial neurological learning systems. The systems like Echelon, exist and this is not a science and fiction directory for people thirsted sensation. The ones who reveled and publish internal governments documents showing how the law is abused and how big the scale of mass surveillance is are accused and prosecuted.

[x]Question 13. Explain the difference between customers’ wants needs and expectation. 3.2

Differences between customers’ needs want and expectation are huge. Every day and all of us we are customers. In our ideal world everything working perfectly there are no faulty items any kind of our need is fulfilled faster than single eye blink. We expect that purchased goods will work forever. Often we will get what we expect but usually in a different form.

What we want is our ideal idea about product or service. Often it occurs that our mind drift away in world of fantasy and we want unrealistic product or service. After this short moment of contemplation, needs to start knocking to our door and then we start to consider what kind of product we required what kind of work this new product or service should be done. What kind of benefits and features we need from it. If we will answer on these question in our mind expectations start to build imagination about a particular product or service. No matter how unreal expectations are, if we will meet the experienced sales consultant who can serve us something that is match we will buy it.

So the wants and expectation are similar and belong to the fantasy world. Needs meaning that there is something what must to be done and this is supreme factor over all. By looking at their needs in detail it is possible to match the service offer.

Personal Digression:

My main quest like a marketer is create the desire, than to build inside the prospect mind the need (using the representation systems, hearing,visual) It is important that customer need to belie that this thoughts belong to him. If somebody start to think about something he belie that these are them thoughts and start to build expectation. In this example conditioning of prospect starts and ends of creating desire. The last stage of selling process is just to confirm expectation that after purchase customer will fell exactly what he want to feel.

[x]Question 14. Explain how to identify customer’s needs and expectations. 3.2

Correctly identifying customers needs is essential for developing customer satisfaction and loyalty. If you fail to properly identify customers needs, or if you are indifferent to their needs, they will take their business elsewhere.Customers and humans have unique needs. Assuming what a customer wants based on previous clients can drive the customer away. Identifying clients’ needs creates satisfied customers, and satisfied customers are less likely to have reason to enter into disputes with your organization or contemplate legal action. The most important and obvious method is to listening with empathy. Each of our question should provide us closer view on customer expectations then we have a chance to meet their requirements.

Personal digression:

We are learned how to react. When somebody start to tell us about issue very often we are not listening in time when this person describe the meritum of issue we start to think how our response should look. It is very important to listening our customers with empathy. In worlds our friend or customers serve us solution like a meal. From my personal and business experience one of the image pop up to our minds is just to prepare the best sounding answer. The fact is we  often do not mind what other parities talking about. In critical time when we should listening carefully we just starting to prepare our answer.

Good customer service devision 

[x]Question 15. Explain the importance of managing customers’ expectations, and why managers’ expectations need to be taken into account. 3.3

Importance of managing customer’s expectations is crushal in each business.

Communication is key to managing customers’ expectations. Providing clear and efficient ways for customers to communicate with your business helps to continually reinforce expectation. It happen that the customer have unrealistic idea about product or service. Liaising with each customer to match their expectations suggesting or offering alternatives and compromises build long term relationship even our customer will not buy our product or service on first approach. Each of our customer  have different needs and expectations as well as all of us have unique personality. The key to person is seems to be flexible and polite person. If we will use correct body language and vocabulary suitable for our customer, we will have rare chance to understand customer needs. Then is just one step more to close the deal. If we ask a correct question we will obtain an answer about customer real need. It is more than important to listening with empathy. 

 If we work for commercial organisation and we earn the profit for our jobs we should consider manager expectation and our mission statement.  Many of organisation plans and actions are well reviewed and prepared our manager role is to make shure that we going in right direction and each of manager recommendations we should implement as quickly as it is possible.

[x]Question 16. Explain how to behave to meet customers expectations. Give three examples. 3.4

  1. Posses a strong speaking manner with natural and confidential body language.
  2. Treat every customer like an individual, build impression that customer is important for us.
  3. Have a required skills on position held; IT skills , problem-solving,good grooming standard.

[x]Question 17. Describe techniques that can put customer ease and gain their trust Give three examples. 3.5

The list of techniques to gain human trust is probably older than Biblia. The fundamental of each gain of it is building trust. In our environment we have not got any natural predators and the last remaining enemy seems to be for us another human. We use science methods to control our and other people behavior. Showing testimonials from satisfied customers can encourage to our service offer.

All of the psychologists know that the unconscious flow of information has bigger impact for a human than the importance of real content. Body language is first stepping to ease deal with our customer. Usually, we put more attation how people speak and how it affect for us,than on real content of the communication.

The most obvious techniques helping build the trust between parties are showing empathy and understanding to our customer. Using active listening, engaging with customer is a good path to start. Avoiding any kind of misunderstanding and promises which one can not be matched are also important.

Personal digression:

Less obvious techniques with proofed performance and mass used on higher level of management i publish below:

Understanding and using  NLP neuro linguistic programming like an effective way of communication especially where we are dealing with customer face to face is the technique with huge potential and have measured efficiency. Just only inside this method we have a wide range of techniques which is only slightly described in the manual.

Richard Bandler & John Grinder

USA late 1970’s

[x]Question 18a. Explain the importance of following up actions and keeping promises when delivering customer service. 3.6

Importance of keeping up promises is enormous. Not full filling promises decrease the trust to our organisation. If we can not match our promises we should inform our customer and propose a satisfactory solution of issue suitable to our customer. Otherwise, we can have an unhappy customer. All of the customer service should prevent an unpleasant situation like this. Constantly updating information and forwarding it can build trust even we can not deliver promises good or service on time. Following up action should give us a feedback from the customer and on this stage we should to proceed research about customer satisfaction from our product or service. We also should investigate any of complements issue to prevent similar situation in further. Following up action can be a nice place to show our customer that we care. It is also good time for introduce incentives and ask about feedback. The last stage of deal build the impression we need and loyalty we desire. Positive feedback from our customer build positive reputation of organisation and can benefit in many ways. The most important one is loyalty and further recommendation to new customers. Our goal should be encourage our existing customers to recommend us to friends or business.

[x]Question 18b. Explain the implication when customer service is not delivered as promised.  3.6

From a snow ball into an avalanche. I will to use this acronym to draw what can happen. On beginning we have just only one unhappy customer, that customer is our snowball. We even do not know that our customer is not happy because our following up service did not exist until that time. This customer is a youtuber with 1 mln subscribers and this man decided to publish short movie why is not happy from our service. The snow ball start to roll. The diameter of complaints are increasing dramatically and nobody in the company knows what is the real reason. Revenue and profit in our organisation start to low down. The avalanche start to draw the bankruptcy horizon on our organisation also all suppliers are affected and fall down into the bottom the valley. Then spring coming and all the snow melted down. There is no sing about our organisation in the valley. But on the top of the mountain the snow is still lay. Those snow moolds on the top are our competitors better suitable to our customers than we was.

Summary the implication of not delivered customer service can be:

  • Lower the quantity of order from new customers.
  • Decreasing customer satisfaction.
  • Increasing the volume of complainants.
  • Decreasing customer loyalty.
  • Negative affecting for local community.
  • Loosing the jobs for all involved and connected organisation (suppliers chain).

[x]Question 19. Explain the relationship between customers’ needs and expectations and customer satisfaction. 5.1

If our product meets the real or imagined needs of the client, the satisfaction index should increase and should decrease proportionally if our products or services do not meet its expectations.Customer satisfaction are abstract measurements between what customer needs, based on their specific requirements to subjective customer’s expectations, like what customer reasonably expect when they make a purchase and perform transaction. It is not easy to conduct representative research especial when asked question conditioning customer to choose one of answers.

Organisation use several ways to quantify the customers reaction and level of satisfaction. The most popular are quantitative research techniques like; the level of sales, the amount of repeat business allocated in time, the level of complaints and negative feedback, comments and scores in satisfaction surveys. KPIs Key performance indicators to asses key features of the product or service.

In my opinion following up procedure in each organisation should have implemented survey. Collecting feedback from our customers can be more valuable then any other source of research. To get accurate data, consultants should not to push the customer to answer, rather just collect customer feedback then start to analysis on all metadata.

Reviewers on websites forums and social media pages are often used to conduct survey measurement. This kind of survey need to be prepared well and be resist for competitors action. It seems to be a normal practice in organisations to prepare a millions of text line with good opinion about particular organisation than special application can pass through any kind of secure system just to publish this kind of information. Than the text are synonymous and mixed to gain unique content to publish and prevent to be deducted like a spam practice. 

Some of SEO- Search Engine Optimization experts know how to analysis these kind of data. But many customers and CEO still have false believes that search engine return always true information. Very often fact is that search engine results, are strictly correlated with organisation marketing goals rather than impartial facts.

[x]Question 20. Explain the importance as a treating customers’ like an individuals. 5.3

Every human being wish to be treated like an individual. There are many examples in our live to fast asses this statement like a true. It is hard to find the same dressed person on the street. But if we are in factory and we look around employees we can fast discover that people looks exactly the-same. Our customer should feel that in a matter of fact is treated like somebody special. I used verb feel with one special reason. Customer do not have to know that is customer number is 9.15321 in our database. Will never complaint if given customer service will be extraordinary. But if it is not we can reach a loop of unhappy customers complaints and company erosion.

Personal Digression:

Beginning of start research long terms customers service consequences (follow-up service-also) started do be monitored in and by systems like SAP.

[]Question 21. Describe the futures and benefits of an organisation’s products and or services. 5.2 (make a list for benefits and futures).

[x]Question 22. Explain the importance of balancing promises made to customers with needs of organisations. 5.4

In order to survive and thrive organisation needs to achieve its own objectives. Promises can be given only to human. Deadlines are meet by human not by machines. On one side we have a person whom we grant promises. On the other hand we have us. Not full-filing an agreement between two parties results, loosing trust. If we will not prevent, the trigger of spiral of dissatisfaction can start. From psychology point of view every agreement between parties we made in our live is internall promises with us. And this is why so important to not promises anything with conditions we can not met. Because we are not only disappoint our customer we also destroy our ability to trust our self.

[x]Question 23. Explain when and to whom to escalate problems. 5.5

If we are in the situation when we do not have what to do we just need to keep ask how to deal with the situation. We should move to an organisation hierarchy chart until identify the right person and the right outcome. Normal practice should be to deal with problem before it occurs. However, it is not easy many employees prefer to wait until the end of their shift and hope that issue will just be vaporized. This kind of situation  happen when staff  not trained enough well.  It is vital important that in process of escalation, you provide the decision maker with all relevant information about the situation

[x]Question 24. Describe a method of measuring effectiveness in the delivery customer service. Give three examples. 5.6

Measuring customer service is not easy to conduct. Each small phrase in question survey can provide misleading information. When evaluating effectiveness, organisation measures effectiveness analysis by analyzing:

  • Website and social media activity. To determine efficiency. The script reveals, a correlation between the number of unique customer visitors, to real sales.
  • Media comments. Measures and evaluate the customer feedback on social media.
  • Complaints levels. Tracking the volume and types of complainants. Monitoring changes since improvement introduced.

[x]Question 25. Explain how customer service information can be used, making reference to the Data Protection Act. 4.1

Data cannot be released to a third party (to company or organisation), without the consent of the individual it refers to, unless there is a lawful reason to do so. Data can only be used for the explicit purpose for which it was gathered. Citizens have a legal right to access any data held about them in most circumstances. Exclusions might apply if information is held for the prevention or detection of criminal activity.Personal data cannot be transferred outside the European Economic Area unless the individual it pertains to has given their consent, or unless the country or territory it is being sent to can ensure adequate protections are in place.

Information can be more important and valuable then cash. 

[x]Question 26. Explain the importance of systems to manage customer service information.

Systems to manage customer service can improve the organisation performance, can help to measure, customer satisfaction, can report complaints and help to support each company division. From our point of view (Customer Service) this kind of implantation should help us to save our resources. The most valuable resource is time. And this kind of system should us save it as much as it possible. 

[x]Question 27. Explain the uses of systems to manage customer service information. 4.3

Systems to manage customer service information was design to ease whole the process of manage and maintain each stage of relationship with customer. Today uses of systems like a SAP are wide.  Can include all of customer data scan of ID files with recorded calls etc. 

The uses of this kind of system depends from many factors. The easiest implantation are oriented to provide and measure the advertising campaign accuracy. Of course checking any kind of information should be as easy as it is possible. In this kind of system all of data can be logon and easy to maintain. We should consider that all of customer data are sensitive. 

Personal digression:

Systems used to manage and collect customer service information are in vital interested of governments. Acces to these kind of information is on aim each country intelligence. Mass leaking information from customers database seems to be common. Many of system abuse like the data leak was never reveled to public. The existence of hugest and the most advanced surveillance system called Echelon was officially confirmed by USA and UK.

[x]Question 28. Identify the futures of an effective customer complaints process. 4.4

An effective complainant process should be fair and accessible the main goal is to prevent recognized complaints in the future. Effective process should resolve issues as quickly as it possible. Successful complaints procedure should also have a clear and effective recording process by collecting information relevant to the complaint these steps should be conduct to make improvements to service thorough the process of monitoring trends and data. Effective customer complaint process always should offer apology and attractive compensation. Consultant recipe the complaint form customer is on the front of line to maintain the reputation of the company. The customer appreciate honesty and responsiveness. Proactive consultant apology is more effective when it is supported by compensation no meter if the value of compensation is small. Well trained staff is important not for the development of the company but it can also prove their competency to customers. If customer feel that his complaint is being taken seriously they will feel assured and satisfied with the service provided.

[x]Question 29. Describe the uses of customer complaints process. 4.5

The most important in customer complaints process is that to make it easy in order to put complaint.  Feedback is vital for each organisation so complaints process should be easy and accessible for each customer. If customer make a complaint the process should identify the way to resolve it and prevent similar situation in future. All complaints should be recorded to summarize what kind of improvement is necessary to implement.  Effective complaint process should identify any areas where staff need more training and development.

[x]Question 30. Explain the importance of a brand to an organisation. 4.6

There is nothing more important for the company then a brand. In first step brand can become an obsession in second can stick to person like a religion. Build with customer this kind of bond is something strong desirable by many CEO. Brand can be something what can be obsessed for us like employees and positive drive crazy our customers. If our customers make a tattoo with our company logo. It is meaning that our brand have important place in our customer live. Even we can tell that our brand have a place in customer heart. But what exactly is brand and how our mind represent it?

Personal Digression:

In today reality when organisations start to generate the revenue bigger then governments the distance between them two start to be unclear. Each time when I examine my mind for the meaning of the brand for me i see pictures with logo and first company slogan. Our mind always try to make things easier for us and try to compress all meaning in one picture. A simpler the picture is the better to mnemonic it and print in our unconscious. Why i started to compare commercial organisation to government. Because the best and simplest logo are already reserved by country’s.

  • Commercial Organisation 
  • Churches 
  • Governments

[x]Question 31. Explain how a brand affects an organisation’s customer service offer. 6.2

The brand slogans promises etc… have an affect not only for customer but for employees either. On each level of education we are learnt that if we can not remember something than we should repeat information until it will glue. This ancient method have bigger impact for employees than for potential customers. Organisation need to pay for advertising campaigns to attract customers. If employee work in close environmental with other co-workers in office area are often expose for company slogans, statements, rules, on walls in toilets etc. Many employees not understanding why those information are served. What is role of this kind of hidden communicate?  Even if we not believe in company slogans and all what is associated to it, those nformations are sticky to us anyway.  So the brand slogans each organisation should consider to prepare written constitution this main and important slogan should be continues repeated.  Brand promise is essential to see it as a long-term commitment.

Brand have impact on our employees. Our employees when dealing with customers are often unconsciousness prepared to full-fill the company statements and procedures.

Personal digression & observation:

The differences between countries, religion, organisation seems to be blur and unclear.

Each country have a flag. In today meaning flag is organisation logo. The similar method was used ancient times ago to build country to bound people in order to build organisation. In today live we use techniques reserved for government in the past just in order to have better influence on our customers. Each country have anthem easy to remember prepared in lyrics. This is our main company slogan/promises. The hugest company preparing the music to lyrics and try to engage all of our senses to build not easy to understand relationship with us. How strong the effect is? Below is short experiment. Try to not here any sounds.

-Nokia connecting peoples…

“A lie repeated a thousand times becomes true.”

Joseph Goebbels

[x]Question 32. Explain the importance of using customers service language that supports a brand promise.

Well prepared advertising campaign should create in customers mind desire to purchase our product or services. If the campaign was prepared with care about the smallest details, the customer service department should be to instruct what kind of worlds phrases and jargon should be used to reflect and trigger promised influence. No matter what kind of communication method customer decide to use; mail, video, call. the language used to interact with the customer should be selected to build extend and stabilize picture about what customer will have.

Example:

Two T-shirts manufactured in the same factory one with logo expensive brand, other without it. In many situation, customers buy a product just only because the meaning of the brand has an impact and void desire was top up. Buying pattern is provided by additional value sometimes not realistic. So add value how customer will feel in t-shirt sometimes is more important than rational buying arguments.

[x]Question 33. Identify your own role in ensuring that a brand promise is delivered. 6.4

My role like a company owner inventor and the first CEO is make sure that my brand promise legend will suit my customers.  In just few company’s slogan i need to compress all organisation constitution. Just to lead. When everything is prepared should be easy but building something new 

[x]Question 34. Explain the differences between internal and external customers. 1.1

External and internal customers are important for organisation. Internal customers provides ingredients served by organisation to external customers. Internal customer have knowledge and know what to expect from organisation, how organisation works what kind of procedures are in use. External customers may know nothing about organisation until first transaction.In many occasion internal customers are outsource of organisation. Other different is about complaint process internal customers try to find solution when any issue occurs because it can affect for both parties revenue. 

External customers are attracted to organisation by many different ways. Internal customers are selected by organisation employees. The brand impression is important factor as well as advertising, research and recommendation. First transaction to new customer knowing nothing about organisation is crustal and following up services should recognize any issue if any occurred.

Internal customer have a real impact on external customers. External customers can decide what kind of action introduce when they obtain imperfect product not match with specification. Single complaint from external customer should be validate. If repeated situation happen investigation should recognize what is wrong and what kind of action should be take to prevent it.

[x]Question 35. Explain how cultural factors can affect customers’ expectations. Give three examples. 1.2

The subject how cultural factors can affect customers’ expectations are more then sensitive.

In today Europe landscape in many countries we live in multi-culti environmental. One well working model of business can not be easy transferable between two different countries/nations until cultural factors will be well consider. The idea about treating everybody in the same exact way seems to be unfair. However this kind of implementation is a good point to establish a background for “one world flat treating standard”. From one point of view In the name of political equality we should treat everybody the same from the other hand treating everybody the same can be interpret like a threat. A good example to illustrate how cultural and religion believes affect on customers expectation is a praying room.

If we would like to treat everybody the same each single person we are dealing with should be inform about this room. If you will inform a person with bread where the prayer room is it can be interpret like an attack as well with somebody with cross on neck. But if You will forward information  about praying room to person with turban on head he will be more than glad.

  1. On examples multiple quantity of countries. What is exactly Taboo. In many cultures the way how we deal with hygiene is a way of private live, and should stay public unrevealed. Commercial TV station in Europe will not show the advert showing a strength of toilet tissue using real or looking the real samples. For people living in Japan this kind of advert is not shocking. Showing this kind of advert in countries like; United Arab Emirates, or Kathar can be prosecute. 
  2. The nice example is everything associated with kitchen and eating activates. Some of behaviors are wide accept and easy to understand other can be specific limited to one country or nation.
  3. Halal-meat manufactured throw the ritual killing, when the animal has cut thorath and just bleeding until will die is acceptable in some cultures in other it is call like a sadism.
  4. Bargaining/Haggling, Paying, Tipping. In some of culture the haggling is treated like unpleasantness activity.  But for people origin Near East is a normal activity.

[x]Question 36. Describe the characteristic of challenging customers. 1.3

No.1 The person with disability or age:

Can have special needs for example with easy access wheelchairs, walking frames.

Person with hear issue may need louder speaking and repeating sentences.  

No.2 Angry customer:

It is natural and easy for each us to identify the angry customer. The faster breathing and exhaling, accelerated speech rate, unpleasant facial expression. Just primary knowledge of body language should us help to interpret angry customer. Sound of fast tapping fingers on the desk should be a sign that we will face the angry customer. This kind of customer is most difficult one and always need additional care to be listened.

No.3 Know-it-all customer:

This kind of customer always know better. If we figure out that customer each time have better knowledge on the subject we should accept the situation and be a succumbed to his decision.

[x]Question 37. Explain how to identify dissatisfied customers. 1.4

There are some common indication to help us screening to identify dissatisfied customers. The customer becomes aggressive. They show sign of inpatient and frustration. The body language is aggressive or defensive. Usually the most common alarm signals is a query about another member of staff. Angry customers do not respond to attempts of contact by email or call. Comparing the business to competitors. 

Personal Digression:

Dissatisfied customers should be identified and researched. Why? Because customer can present us a ready to implement solution what should be change to improve our product or service. In many of cultures ask direct question will not provide adequate response. In my opinion each of research should be camouflaged by other inconet servery question. Also we can use many advance medical techniques to determinate and assess how our product feel about our products. Just only analysis of breathing frequency reveal how our prospect feel. Using wide spectrum scientific methods and implement it in new areas like customer service research, can have scalpel sharp accuracy. However many of technics can be consider like unethical. 

[x]Question 37b. Give three examples why customers can be dissatisfied with your organisation or industry. 1.4

Unresolved issues.

Can be terminal for each organisation. In my organisation the first front to resolve customer issue is call center. Low paid personnel to deal with numerous issues each day. The personnel is overloaded and can not effectively dealing with issues. So the role of the consultant is just to describe the issue and then sending it to the correct department. Other departments have not got a procedure of how to deal with the situation. Then after one week the same angry client without resolved issue call again and the circle is closed.

Hidden information and costs.

There are situations that on the final stage our customer is not happy because is charged by additional hidden costs associated to the transaction. The most obvious one in our company are customs fees and additional tax costs. But these costs are not obvious for our international customers. The impression after the transaction is very bad and the customer often has a feeling that was cheated.

Slow delivery.

We have the numerous number of complaints about slow delivery service. However many of issue are above our jurisdiction and we can not deal with it effectively.

[x]Question 38. Describe common techniques for dealing with dissatisfied customers. 1.5

The overriding technique should always be listening with empathy. We are learn how to react to how to answer but never how to listen. Very often the customer will tell us how we should deal with the issue and what should be done to guest a smile on his face again. Very often it is just so easy because many of people just forget about this the most important one. In this place i would like to tell that this technique should be common but it is not.

After a session of listening with empathy, we should apologize for inconvenience then take follow up the action and provide confirmation to the customer that his complaint was important for us and the organisation. Summarize and paraphrase customer issue should cement our relation with unhappy customer. The customer should to be sure that the investigation about the issue will be processed and the nature of the problem will be resolved to prevent a similar situation in future.

[x]Question 39. Organisations work to deliver the customer service offer they have promised. Explain how successful delivery enhances customer loyalty. 2.1

Every business wants loyal customers, yet we often forget how crucial relationships are to our success.

The simplest and most effective way of achieving this is by building a customer loyalty programme. Investing time and energy in promoting customer loyalty should be an integral component of any business marketing strategy.

Delivered product and services matched to service offer extend customer loyalty and build the relationship. Each of successfully delivered product and services builds and develop trust. Happy customer on this stage can be and should be for the organization the best investition. Happy customer is depend to psychological law of confirmation and this influence can be maintained and extend by the organization.

[x]Question 40. Explain the relationship between customer satisfaction and organisation performance. 2.2

The relation between customer satisfaction and organisation performance are strictly correlated. Organisation performance will increase while the excellent goods and customer service will be provided. Customers are happy when their needs and expectations are meet or exceeded. Happy customer profit develop customer service and their recommendation to other. Customers tell other about positive experience return and make more purchase further themselves. If all of this situation occurs we can say that the organisation performance increase.

The example:

We are a sells consultant in shop. We recommenced our customer nice book. The book was so interesting to our customer and help to resolve issue. The customer was as happy from our service and competence that decided to recommenced us to friends. Some of friends attracted to shop by testimonials purchased recommend book and experience that the issue was resolved. New customers start to recommend our book shop to other customers. The circle of satisfaction was close and our performance increase. 

[x]Question 41. Explain the potential consequences of customers dissatisfaction. Give three examples. 2.4

  1. Resign from purchase and decide to buy from our competitor (affect organisation revenue).
  2. Not recommend our product or service to new customer (decrease customer loyalty).
  3. Spreading dissatisfaction experience to other potential customer (lowering the brand value).

[]Question 42. Explain how the reputation and image of an organisation affects customers’ perceptions of its products and/or services. 2.3

From psychological point of view customer the customer experience and feelings about product / or service are easy transferable. And there are for skilled marketing team. If we are not happy we do not like to share this feeling we just want to forget about it. What is meaning for company? That unhappy customer will change our service for competitor from the other hand the happy customer will start to transfer positive feelings to our product or service. Purchased goods and services start to be a part of our live quirkier than we want to admit. 

Personal digression:

As i described in previous questions the reputation, image has a real impact of customer perceptions. The ideal situation happen if customer start personification process to integrate with organisation. It is not easy to prepare key performance indicator to measure this kind of factor. However action aim to done it are already introduced. A good example to confirm this statement are actions and research provided by company like USA Gallup Institute. This kind of research will have an impact for all of us in future. However advanced screening methods on mass scale exist from years. To the opinion of the public leaked little information on this subject, however, the ones we receive clearly say that with just a dozen or so questions, you can profile the consumer’s behavior. The governments reaction are slow good example is Data Protection Act (DPA).

[x]Question 43. Describe different methods of attracting customers and retaining their loyalty. Give three examples. 2.5

No 1. Recommendations.

Collecting testimonials from happy customers seems to be a good and cheap method to increase customer loyalty. But if we publish it on the organisation website and ask our customer to publish the link to testimonial in social media or on his on her website can have a better effect then launching any other advanced campaigns. Also, many customers are happy to share information to others that their recommendation was published in the organisation folder or website. We can observe an interesting trend that in many corporations this kind of technique starts to be a standard procedure. This kind of technique also builds content on our website.

No 2. Incentives.

There are many ways how to use Incentives  to retain customer loyalty the most obvious one seems to be use MLM Multi Level Marketing to benefit each of our customer. This kind of method is wide use and acceptable but in United Kingdom we need to make shure that our MLM service is not a a pyramid scheme.

No 3. Excellent following up offer.

Preparing excellent offer well matched to our customers is also easy to implement. After we introduce internal research this kind of offer can be matched on similar customer purchase behaviour. This kind of following up service offer are wide used in internet shops.  The discount coupons for new purchase is something that we should always share after each of transaction.

[x]Question 44. Explain the differences between the private, public and voluntary sectors. 1.1

All of sectors are regulated by different law legislation. The private sector called also commercial sector is orientated to make a financial profit. The provided goods are services and products or mixture both. The private sector is wide and includes all industries like; shops, workshops, financial and legal services, factories. 

Public sector includes organisation such as the NHS, police, fire service, HM Revenue and Customs, armed forces, school, colleges. They provided diverse services to the public like healthcare, security service, rubbish collection. Public sectors not necessarily generate profit but however this institution can have a real influence for country GPD- gross domestic product.

Voluntary sector called also the third sector unite the organisation without a typical commercial interest. This kind of organisation can be called as social enterprises -e.g charities , housing associations, trust or cooperatives. They providing the product and services and can be involve into selling products to raise money -e.g. selling product in charity shops to rise a funds, then providing counselling services.

[x]Question 45. Explain the functions of three different organisational structures. 1.2 (make a list with 3 points)

Three forms of organizations describe the organizational structures that are used by most companies today: functional, divisional and matrix.

Functional:

The structure is organised according to the function of the organisation. This solution is wide implemanted whem products or services require high level of specialist knowledge. In this model the senior functional manager is person responsible for allocating resources for the total product. COordination with organisation occurs through; the regular meetings, detailed specification.

Examples of these individual departments are sales, accounting, marketing, finance, research and production.

Divisional Structures:

A divisional structure organizes a company’s activities into geographical, products, markets or service groups. As example, a company might have one division to handle sales in the United States and another for European sales. Companies with numerous products, markets or regions prefer to organize their businesses into divisions.

Matrix:

Companies that are creating and launching new products or initiating different marketing campaigns will form matrix structures to manage the projects.It shows how the different parts of organisation will work together for the project.The matrix structure brings together all function through in three-dimensional picture, based on how and when the different department need to coordinate with each other.

[x]Question 46. Describe the futures of the legal structures of organisations that are: 1.3 (SOLE TRADERS, PARTNERSHIP, PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANIES (PLCS))

SOLE TRADERS – In this model, the responsibility for all legal action is taken by one person called the sole trader.  All issues and full responsibility such; income tax, national insurance contributions, VAT, payroll welfare, health and safety. The business owner takes all profits or suffers from the lost profits. The person can work alone or employ many people however sole trader takes responsibility for all other employees. When business growth, sole trader structure is usually develop into limited company or partnership.

PARTNERSHIP – Structure formed by two or more people. The partners are jointly responsible for any or all partnership liabilities, even if one act like an individual acts alone on behalf of the partnership. The organisation’s structure depend of the number of share belong to each partner the profit or losses are share proportional to numbers of share to each partner. Partnership can employ managers and employees but final responsibility is on the partners who are legally responsible.

PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANIES (PLCS) – Each of us can become a shareholder of PLC. Access to buy shares on Stock Exchange is available for public if PLC decide for it. The status of this organisation is based and is similar to limited company. In PLC we have directors responsible for running company and shareholders who own it.

[x]Question 47.Describe the internal and external influences on organisations. Give three examples of each. 2.1 (3x for INTERNAL INFLUENCES, 3X for EXTERNAL INFLUENCES)

INTERNAL INFLUENCES:

Policies and procedures.

Internal legislation can have positive as well as negative effect for organisation develop process. Good easy to understand and proactive policy scheme can be a real value for each organisation. The procedures should be up to date and available for each one interested in.

Strategy, planning, timing.

The role of the chief executive officer in a place where strategy is implemented is important. In fast pace environmental and an emergency case, the role of the leader determines the strength of the organization. Well prepared and realistic advertising campaign should meet their goals, and be measurable by other KPI procedures located in Policies and procedures company book.

Communication.

First and last channel to adopt manage and introduce is an excellent cooperation between co-workers as well with suppliers and customers. Regular updates, training session should be provided for each employee. The company slogan should stick to each employee like his new identity.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES:

  1. Changing in legislation regulations or standard, Changing in international law.

Usually, this kind of changes is communicated from advance to give organisations a period of time to introduce changes. A good example is a procedure called Brexit. Some of the changes can affect the organisation rapidly like embargo for product or services introduced in other countries.

  1. Changes in technology.

All of us and each of organisation are under influence of technology. For example, easy and cheap access to GSM technology changed a HR market and idea how we communicate in just 1 decade. Access to the internet changed the rules of selling any kind of goods and services. Some of the churches already put in the live idea about confession online.

  1. Competitors activates.

Even institutions like governments cannot be safe and need to adapt to order to survive and thrive need to adapt to new circumstances. Today small start-up with the bless of technology can affect a whole industry. The idea to introduce cryptocurrency to market has a huge impact and provide more secure ways to invest and transfer money than banks. Cryptocurrencies also negate the idea of bank existence and this kind of influence is not acceptable by many governments.

Personal digression:

Each of institution and government try to secure their business. Idea to control and eliminate un predicted impact technology on our live seems to be implement by legislation acts like ACTA 2

[x]Question 48. Explain the use of SWOT and PESTLE models of analysis in understanding the organisational environment. 2.2 (split for SWOT ANALYSIS, PESTLE ANALYSIS).

Two common and well know models of analysis are wide used in organisation to understand environmental internal and external influences. Organisations use often own methods to validate the business plans. In many situation this methods are based on two main types SWOT and PESTLE analysis.

SWOT analysis is used to review business ideas, analysis current situation, and working out of strategies for development. Answer. This method often is based on the prepared statement. Answer on question symbolized by letters S-W-O-T lead refresher to find the conclusion and then help find the solution. The first step of the process is split into defining Strengthens and Weaknesses. Then we validate collected data in part called letter O. Opportunities for improvement should outline what are the areas was unscientific and where updates and upgrades should be done to increase performance. Letter T mean; Threats to such progress on this stage we consider potential obstructions and things that may stop progress.

PESTLE method analysis is use to evaluate impact of internal an external influences. If any organisation doeas not react to the external and internal influences on its operation, it may affect its ability to thrive and survive. The letters PESTLE stands for:

Political – Analysis current and further legislation may affect on business and what kind of opportunities can equal from that kind of action. Global regulations can affect many industries and should be considered on the first stage.

Economic –  e. g. increased costs of materials, wages and other costs, difficulties with collect staff, fears about unemployment, confidence in growth can increase the spending level and affect on GDP.

Social – e. g. effects on changing lifestyle like fitness and eating healthy food, like deciding to use the bike to travel to work than a car, dealing with ageing population.

Technological – e.g. effects on the level how we use the internet in order to communicate, artificial intelligence to eliminate human from drivers chair in the car, mathematical models to predict spreading viruses and diseases.  

Legal – e.g. to cover collection sensitive data, use, storage and wipe up confidential data, preparation food methods, ensure that customers are treated fairy.

Environmental – e.g.  affecting of manufactured and using the disposal items such; cars, fridges, air conditioner systems, reduction of using the plastic bag, recycling targets.

[x]Question 49. Explain why change in business environmental is important. 2.3

Change in business environment is important Because help to keep advantage and distance between organisation and competitors. Changes will benefit to organisation new un-explore opportunities however history shows that the best conceptions are not introduce on market by inventors. Introduce real changes in organisations are not easy to implement and this is a reason why in market landscape we have just few brilliant shining companies. Others just follow up after. 

The best way to explain this issue is to refer to biology and then precise to genetics principles. Each organism living on the planet, even viruses have one objective to live and survive. The gens promote survive and these individuals who can fast adapt to new environmental will live, others will just wipe out from history. KAIZEN the Japanese idea about continuous unstoppable improvement is a concept lead to the understanding that our live and universe is open book. In this never-ending story, we can put our names and every of our action. In “human factor” history book each second matters.

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Medical Doctor

Notes to presentation. Some of the unsorted information is below.

Your presentation should include:
 
Detailed description of what the job involves (and could include ‘a typical day in the life of’)
Qualifications/experience needed to apply for the role
Starting salary and career progression possibilities
Personal qualities needed to be good at the job
Any additional information that provides insight into the role (e.g. interview tests, training, travel etc.)
The presentation should last for five minutes (If you go more than 30 seconds over this time, your content is too little and lasts for less than 4 minutes, marks will be deducted)
Have clear slides supporting your talk. We advise that you use PowerPoint slides, however if you choose to use a different software, it is your responsibility to check it is compatible with IT systems at DMU
You are required to record your presentation using Panopto. Guidance on how to use Panopto can be found on Blackboard.

Standard Entry Medicine
The Standard Entry Medicine course is usually five years long, but in some institutions it is six. It can have different abbreviations, such as MBBS or MBChB, but all result in the bachelor’s degree in medicine.
Graduate Entry Medicine
The Graduate Entry Medicine course is open to those with a previous bachelor’s degree, achieving a minimum of 2.1. Some schools may accept a 2.2. Many universities require the previous degree to be health-related, but not all. It is usually a four-year accelerated degree but in some universities it is a five-year course. It is also known as the Graduate Entry Programme. Some graduate courses are open only to students from the UK.
Medicine with a Preliminary Year
This course takes the form of a five-year Standard Entry Medicine with an additional year at the start, making a six-year course. It is also known as Medicine with a Foundation Year, or similar.
This course is designed for those who achieved highly at A level, or equivalent, but who did not take the required science subjects. The grade requirements tend to be three As at A level, achieved in one sitting. This extra year gives students the necessary science training to catch up. It is not a means of boosting the grades of those who do not meet the entry requirements of standard entry medicine. Please note that many of these courses are open only to UK and European Union students.
Medicine with a Gateway Year
These medical degrees are designed for students who are of high ability but who may have had barriers to their learning due to their circumstances. The courses can take this into account in different ways, for instance by using ‘adjusted criteria’ to change the entry requirements for some applicants. Please note that these courses are open to UK students only.

As mentioned during the lecture, for ‘medicine’, you need to focus on graduate entry medicine or other pathways into studying medicine. What is the role of a medical doctor? How can you become a medical doctor after your medical science degree programme? What is a typical day in the life of a doctor like? etc.

What should I do after medical science?
                                    
From pathology to histology, a degree in medical science can open up many doors to a career in medicine or research.

6 careers with a degree in medical science
Research scientist. …
Clinical immunolgy scientist. …
Pathologist. …
Pharmacologist. …
Biomedical scientist. …
Histology technician.

  1. Research scientist
    Research scientists can work in a variety of settings: government, non-government organisations, labs or universities. They manage lab-based research projects from beginning to end. This involves designing the study, undertaking the lab-work required and analysing collected data.
    A typical day
    According to Associate Professor Andrew Harman, Honours Coordinator for Applied Medical Science at the School of Medical Science, “a typical day for a research group leader or scientist involves meetings with research students to check on their progress, reading medical papers, writing papers and grants as well as coordinating education workshops/talks and sitting on research committees.”
    Career progression
    “Key to career progression in this role is publishing your research in the best journals you can.”
    “This career is rewarding because you are pushing forward the frontiers of human knowledge and you get to work with amazing people,” says Associate Professor Andrew Harman.
  2. Clinical immunolgy scientist
    Clinical immunolgy scientists study how pathogens affect the immune system in a lab setting. “Immunology is one of the most rapidly advancing areas of biomedical research. It contributes to the eradication of infectious diseases, as well as development of successful strategies for vaccination and organ transplantation. Immunotherapies are used to cure allergies, asthma and cancer,” according to Associate Professor Jim Manos, Honours Coordinator for Infectious Diseases and Immunology at the School of Medical Science.
    “Because modern immunology has evolved into a multidisciplinary science that today integrates into many aspects of biology and medicine, immunology graduates are highly sought after by both clinical and research laboratories.”
    A typical day
    Clinical immunolgy scientists usually work in medical schools, hospitals, pharmaceutical companies or labs. A typical day might be collecting tissue samples in order to study protein chemistry and cellular reactions, or it might be designing and conducting clinical trials for a new pharmaceutical drug. This roles also requires a lot of self-education in order to keep up with the latest research in medical journals. 
    Career progression
    Senior immunology professionals manage labs and train medical students or other lab/hospital staff.
  3. Pathologist
    Pathology is the study of disease – what causes the disease and its effect on the human body. Pathologists work in labs to study bodily fluids and tissue samples. They provide vital information to help doctors diagnose disease. Some pathologists also perform autopsies to determine cause of death and disease progression.
    A typical day
    Pathologists spend the majority of their time in the lab. Some pathologists work in hospitals and offices. They are also required to write reports and present their findings, so good communication skills are vital.
    Career progression
    Pathologists in senior positions manage teams of lab workers and attend conferences to stay abreast of industry and technological developments.
  4. Pharmacologist
    Pharmacologists enjoy a wide range of employment, according to Professor Michael Murray, Honours Coordinator for Pharmacology at the School of Medical Science, “they can have careers in research, drug industry, clinical trials, marketing of drugs, provision of expert advice to the public or to other health professionals”.
    A typical day
    A typical day looks quite different for each pharmalogist depending on what area they work in. For example, “toxicologists are like pharmacologists but are interested in chemicals, not drugs. Toxicologists can work in regulation of chemicals, understanding why chemicals have effects on the body or tissues, the dangers of exposure to some chemicals, and the prediction of adverse effects after chemical exposure,” Professor Michael Murray says.
    Career progression
    Undergraduate students often go on to do a postgraduate project related to drug/chemical reactions. Some go on to pursue a full time research career and or join a regulatory agency like Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 
  5. Biomedical scientist
    Biomedical scientists work with patients and in labs to find new ways to cure or treat disease with diagnostic tools or therapeutic strategies. They work at diagnosing diseases and illnesses such as HIV, cancer, diabetes, food poisoning, hepatitis and meningitis.
    A typical day
    Biomedical scientists working in industry are usually based in pharmaceutical or biotechnology labs. They analyse blood, tissue and fluid samples to diagnose disease and work with medical staff to create treatment plans. They also monitor blood abnormalities, provide support in blood transfusions and collect data on the effects of treatments and medications on patients. Attention to detail is a necessary skill as they work with data and reporting on a daily basis.
    Career progression
    Biomedical scientists can go on to become senior lab staff, consultants, researchers or management within a wide range of government, university, pharmaceutical or not-for-profit organisations.
  6. Histology technician
    A histology technician works in a medical lab and focuses on coverting tissue samples into microscope slides for disease diagnosis. This role is vital in the diagnosis and treatments of diseases like cancer. They work behind the scenes to supply doctors with important information.
    Histology technicians work with pathologists and lab managers on a daily basis.
    A typical day
    According to Dr Paul Austin, Senior Lecturer of Anatomy and Histology at the School of Medical Sciences, an average can look like this:
    “Cyrosectioning specimens using a cryostat or microtome, staining specimens with histological regents, and microscopy analysis of specimens.”
    Career progression
    “This career could also lead to lab technician opportunities in research labs, rather than diagnostic labs. The rewarding aspect of the role would be the direct benefits to patient health as a result of biopsy analysis that could influence treatment,” Dr Paul Austin says.
  7. Research scientist
    Research scientists can work in a variety of settings: government, non-government organisations, labs or universities. They manage lab-based research projects from beginning to end. This involves designing the study, undertaking the lab-work required and analysing collected data.
    A typical day
    According to Associate Professor Andrew Harman, Honours Coordinator for Applied Medical Science at the School of Medical Science, “a typical day for a research group leader or scientist involves meetings with research students to check on their progress, reading medical papers, writing papers and grants as well as coordinating education workshops/talks and sitting on research committees.”
    Career progression
    “Key to career progression in this role is publishing your research in the best journals you can.”
    “This career is rewarding because you are pushing forward the frontiers of human knowledge and you get to work with amazing people,” says Associate Professor Andrew Harman.
  8. Clinical immunolgy scientist
    Clinical immunolgy scientists study how pathogens affect the immune system in a lab setting. “Immunology is one of the most rapidly advancing areas of biomedical research. It contributes to the eradication of infectious diseases, as well as development of successful strategies for vaccination and organ transplantation. Immunotherapies are used to cure allergies, asthma and cancer,” according to Associate Professor Jim Manos, Honours Coordinator for Infectious Diseases and Immunology at the School of Medical Science.
    “Because modern immunology has evolved into a multidisciplinary science that today integrates into many aspects of biology and medicine, immunology graduates are highly sought after by both clinical and research laboratories.”
    A typical day
    Clinical immunolgy scientists usually work in medical schools, hospitals, pharmaceutical companies or labs. A typical day might be collecting tissue samples in order to study protein chemistry and cellular reactions, or it might be designing and conducting clinical trials for a new pharmaceutical drug. This roles also requires a lot of self-education in order to keep up with the latest research in medical journals. 
    Career progression
    Senior immunology professionals manage labs and train medical students or other lab/hospital staff.
  9. Pathologist
    Pathology is the study of disease – what causes the disease and its effect on the human body. Pathologists work in labs to study bodily fluids and tissue samples. They provide vital information to help doctors diagnose disease. Some pathologists also perform autopsies to determine cause of death and disease progression.
    A typical day
    Pathologists spend the majority of their time in the lab. Some pathologists work in hospitals and offices. They are also required to write reports and present their findings, so good communication skills are vital.
    Career progression
    Pathologists in senior positions manage teams of lab workers and attend conferences to stay abreast of industry and technological developments.
  10. Pharmacologist
    Pharmacologists enjoy a wide range of employment, according to Professor Michael Murray, Honours Coordinator for Pharmacology at the School of Medical Science, “they can have careers in research, drug industry, clinical trials, marketing of drugs, provision of expert advice to the public or to other health professionals”.
    A typical day
    A typical day looks quite different for each pharmalogist depending on what area they work in. For example, “toxicologists are like pharmacologists but are interested in chemicals, not drugs. Toxicologists can work in regulation of chemicals, understanding why chemicals have effects on the body or tissues, the dangers of exposure to some chemicals, and the prediction of adverse effects after chemical exposure,” Professor Michael Murray says.
    Career progression
    Undergraduate students often go on to do a postgraduate project related to drug/chemical reactions. Some go on to pursue a full time research career and or join a regulatory agency like Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 
  11. Biomedical scientist
    Biomedical scientists work with patients and in labs to find new ways to cure or treat disease with diagnostic tools or therapeutic strategies. They work at diagnosing diseases and illnesses such as HIV, cancer, diabetes, food poisoning, hepatitis and meningitis.
    A typical day
    Biomedical scientists working in industry are usually based in pharmaceutical or biotechnology labs. They analyse blood, tissue and fluid samples to diagnose disease and work with medical staff to create treatment plans. They also monitor blood abnormalities, provide support in blood transfusions and collect data on the effects of treatments and medications on patients. Attention to detail is a necessary skill as they work with data and reporting on a daily basis.
    Career progression
    Biomedical scientists can go on to become senior lab staff, consultants, researchers or management within a wide range of government, university, pharmaceutical or not-for-profit organisations.
  12. Histology technician
    A histology technician works in a medical lab and focuses on coverting tissue samples into microscope slides for disease diagnosis. This role is vital in the diagnosis and treatments of diseases like cancer. They work behind the scenes to supply doctors with important information.
    Histology technicians work with pathologists and lab managers on a daily basis.
    A typical day
    According to Dr Paul Austin, Senior Lecturer of Anatomy and Histology at the School of Medical Sciences, an average can look like this:
    “Cyrosectioning specimens using a cryostat or microtome, staining specimens with histological regents, and microscopy analysis of specimens.”
    Career progression
    “This career could also lead to lab technician opportunities in research labs, rather than diagnostic labs. The rewarding aspect of the role would be the direct benefits to patient health as a result of biopsy analysis that could influence treatment,” Dr Paul Austin says.

Course types Standard Entry Medicine This is usually five years long, but in some institutions it is six. It can have different abbreviations, such as MBBS or MBChB, but all result in the bachelor’s degree in medicine

Graduate Entry Medicine This is open to application from those who already have a bachelor’s degree. Many universities accept a degree in any subject, but some require the previous degree to be science- or health-related. It is a fouryear accelerated degree in most cases, but in some universities it is a five-year course. It is also known as the Graduate Entry Programme.

Medicine with a Preliminary Year This course takes the form of a five-year Standard Entry Medicine with an additional year at the start, making a six-year course. This course is designed for those who achieved highly at A level, or equivalent, but who did not take the required science subjects. This extra year gives students the necessary science training to catch up. It is not a means of boosting the grades of those who do not meet the entry requirements of Standard Entry Medicine.

Medicine with a Gateway Year These medical degrees are designed for those who are of high ability but who may be coming from situations where they have had barriers to their learning. The courses can take this into account in different ways, for instance by using ‘adjusted criteria’ to change the entry requirements for applicants from lowparticipation areas. Often these are six-year courses, with the first year being a foundation year. Some schools offer a stand alone foundation year, which allows progression on to a standard medicine course.

The majority of graduate entry programmes require students to have their first degree in a science subject, but some medical schools also consider applicants with a first degree in an arts subjects.

As a graduate you can also apply to enter undergraduate, non-accelerated medical courses. These are generally five years long.

key skills and attributes needed to study medicine.

Motivation to study medicine and genuine interest in the medical profession • Insight into your own strengths and weaknesses • The ability to reflect on your own work • Personal organisation • Academic ability • Problem solving • Dealing with uncertainty • Manage risk and deal effectively with problems Statement on the core values and attributes needed to study medicine • Ability to take responsibility for your own actions • Conscientiousness • Insight into your own health • Effective communication, including reading, writing, listening and speaking • Teamwork • Ability to treat people with respect • Resilience and the ability to deal with difficult situations • Empathy and the ability to care for others • Honesty

Standard Entry Medicine
The Standard Entry Medicine course is usually five years long, but in some institutions it is six. It can have different abbreviations, such as MBBS or MBChB, but all result in the bachelor’s degree in medicine.
Graduate Entry Medicine
The Graduate Entry Medicine course is open to those with a previous bachelor’s degree, achieving a minimum of 2.1. Some schools may accept a 2.2. Many universities require the previous degree to be health-related, but not all. It is usually a four-year accelerated degree but in some universities it is a five-year course. It is also known as the Graduate Entry Programme. Some graduate courses are open only to students from the UK.
Medicine with a Preliminary Year
This course takes the form of a five-year Standard Entry Medicine with an additional year at the start, making a six-year course. It is also known as Medicine with a Foundation Year, or similar.
This course is designed for those who achieved highly at A level, or equivalent, but who did not take the required science subjects. The grade requirements tend to be three As at A level, achieved in one sitting. This extra year gives students the necessary science training to catch up. It is not a means of boosting the grades of those who do not meet the entry requirements of standard entry medicine. Please note that many of these courses are open only to UK and European Union students.
Medicine with a Gateway Year
These medical degrees are designed for students who are of high ability but who may have had barriers to their learning due to their circumstances. The courses can take this into account in different ways, for instance by using ‘adjusted criteria’ to change the entry requirements for some applicants. Please note that these courses are open to UK students only.

References

Course types | Medical Schools Council (medschools.ac.uk)
About the University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) | UCAT Consortium
Registration and licensing – GMC (gmc-uk.org)

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Laboratory Report

Introduction

Detecting proteinuria in urine is an important biomarker in medicine. Increased levels of proteins may indicate kidney disease. Two samples of urine were delivered marked as ‘patient’ & ‘healthy. The patient complained about fever and tiredness after endurance, and stated that blood was found in the urine.

Aim

To assess the concentration of proteins, to provide scientific reasoning based on data obtained. Comparison of samples by double-tailed T-Test to reveal the significance of results. To assess the patient’s case.

Hypothesis

It is expected to assess the concentration of proteins in both samples. To assess the significance of the results.

Materials and methods

A quantitative Bradford assay was used for the estimation of proteins. Thus, a dye known as Coomassie blue provides a colorimetric time-tested change from red to blue when it binds to proteins under acidic conditions. Spectrometry was used to assess absorbance. Known concentration of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was used as a reference point to assess unknown protein concentrations in both samples. Standard dilutions of Bradford and BSA were prepared.Absorbing readings were normalized with blank. Spectrometer set to 595 nm wavelength. All spectrometry observation was triplicate repeated, all results were recorded. Incubation time at room temperature 5min.

Results

Concentrations were deduced based on the linear equation after setting up the intercept. y=mx where y=absorbance, x=concentration, m=slop. According to Chart No. 1 calibration, standard curve was plotted based on provided concentration of BSA. Unknow protein concentrations were deduced from rearranged linear equations displayed in Chart No. 1. Results with standard deviation are presented in Table No.1 T-test was used as a statistical tool. Significance was marked on Chart No. 2. Urine protein levels have significance resulted for P. Each group n=3 two-tailed t-test. Obtain data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. t(4)=(-34.87), P<0.00001. Therefore, P****.

Chart No. 1

Tested samples Protein concentration in urine (mg/liter ± standard deviation) Healthy sample 1.4003 ± 0.007 Patient sample 1.5823 ± 0.005 Table No.1Chart No. 2

Discussion and conclusion

All objectives of the analysis were reached. According to Aitekenov, (2020), used methodology is similar. Two points on the calibration curve do not match the trend line. There is a probability that the researcher used incorrect volume in those two calibration BSA samples. Comparison of healthy sample versus patient sample reveals that level of protein is abnormal to patient. Statistical verification by a two-tailed t-test revealed the significance factor of obtaining data. Blood in urine and other patient symptoms lead to the conclusion of glomerulonephritis. Additional screenings should proceed to find the cause of the patient’s condition. Accuracy & efficiency may be improved with the adoption of different screening methods according to Schleicher, (1978).

References

  • Aitekenov, S. et al. (2020), Detection and quantification of proteins in human urine. Talanta, p.121718. [online] Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039914020310092?via%3Dihub [Accessed 29 Nov. 2021].
  • Schleicher, E. and Wieland, O.H. (1978), Evaluation of the Bradford method for protein determination in body fluids. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry. Zeitschrift Fur Klinische Chemie Und Klinische Biochemie, [online] 16(9), pp.533–534. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/712344/ [Accessed 29 Nov. 2021].
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Migraine

INTRODUCTION

In the United Kingdom, migraine attacks concern around 10 million people aged 15-69, whilst the total NHS costs of treating this illness is estimated to be £150 million per year, and the wider economic costs are even higher (NHS, 2020). To reduce the number of migraine attacks amongst people and to decrease the NHS costs, it is crucial to find proper medicine.

Migraine is a moderate to severe type of headache, that usually appears on one side of the head. The pain tends to be throbbing, pulsating, or debilitating. The migraine can attack occasionally or regularly. Scientists have not yet found the exact cause of migraine. However, there are activities and behaviours’ that trigger it. Those are; stress, depression, poor-quality sleep or diet, low blood sugar, smoking, or medicines. Regular migraines have a negative impact on one’s life and can disturb daily activities. (NHS, 2019)

The aim is to introduce the analysis and reveal the results of the two drugs’ effectiveness in treating migraine pain. Migone & Naproxen were tested against a placebo to assess differences between active substances. Finding effective medicine is necessary to help individuals impacted. Economical factors such as lowering the cost of treating migraine are also crucial from a wide social perspective according to (NHS, 2020).

METHODS

The study took into consideration the efficiency of two drugs (Migone, Naproxen) versus inert substance placebo. The group of 30 participants of both sexes was randomly selected. The age range is from 20 to 60 years old. Doubled tiled T-Test was selected as the appropriate tool to assess the significance of findings. Provided data before and after treatment were used to distinguish efficiency by comparison of intensity and frequency of migraines. Clinical trials lasted three months period. The study compare obtained results. The intensity of migraines is numbered from being mild to extremely debilitating. (0-10)

RESULTS

Graph 1 – The comparison of an average number of migraines before and after trial

As can be seen on Graphs 1, both Migone and Naproxen show the significant ability to decrease the number of migraines and lower their intensity. Placebo shows the irrelevant impact on study groups. Migone shows the acutest difference before and after the trial in the number of migraines (decreased by 50% after trial). Naproxen also appears to be an effective drug in treating migraine (decreased the number of migraines by 35%).

Graph 2 – The comparison of an average intensity after medicine intake.

DISCUSSION

The study reveals that two drugs Migone & Naproxen are effective in treating migraine pain compared to placebo. Based on results Migone is the most effective drug to treat migraine under trial conditions. Naproxen indicates effectiveness in decreasing the frequency of migraine attack and their intensity. Placebo does not reveal any significant impact on improvement migraine pain. The fact that migraine can attack frequently or can be irregular it’s a study raw data limitation therefore, the results may be not accurate. Moreover, raw data do not include dosages of given substances. Additional data such as individual habits and behavioral protocols introduced during clinical trial will be useful for further research. Raucci, et al. (2021) claim that lifestyle and patient choices may have a significant impact on migraines perceived by patients. Individual live choices may significantly interfere in increasing or decreasing migraine pain. Further research exploring the case should be conducted.

REFERENCES

  1. NHS (2019) ‘Migraine’. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/migraine/ (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
  2. NHS (2020) ‘Improved NHS migraine care to save thousands of hospital stays’. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/2020/01/improved-nhs-migraine-care/#:~:text=In%20total%2C%20it%20is%20estimated,million%20migraine%2Drelated%20sick%20days (Accessed: 10/03/2022)
  3. Raucci, et al. (2021). ’Lifestyle Modifications to Help Prevent Headache at a Developmental Age. Frontiers in Neurology’ [online] 11, p.618375. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884344/ [Accessed 18.03.2022].
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Headache

A headache is one of the most common pain conditions in the world. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), globally about half of adults reported
headaches at least once per annum. Across those who experienced headaches three-person on ten reported migraine pain. Recurrent painful headaches attacks may be classified as migraine. Migraine is a type of primary
headache. Moreover, causes severe throbbing pain. Pain in the head may
arise and become severely pulsating. Migraine pain is usually localized in one
side of the head. The spectrum of pain follows with other symptoms as; nausea, sensitivity to light, noise, or odors. Migraine attacks may vary in duration.
Typically a migraine lasts an hour to even 72 hours. In addition, those painful
attacks may have a negative impact on everyday activities.
Some patients know in advance that a migraine attack is incoming. Undoubtedly, it is because of the phenomenon called an aura. That provides anticipatory symptoms. Those can be spotted as disturbances in the vision as flashes,
blind spots, or simply blurred sight. Aura is not one but rather a compilation of
sensory symptoms. Aura is an intense feeling that appears before headache
pain. Furthermore, about 1 in 4 people experience it before a migraine strikes
What the causes are:
Almost one century ago scientists started to question the causes of migraine disorder. Till today the
cause of headaches is not fully understood. There are some genetic predispositions and conditioning
environmental factors. Some migraine causes are associated with hormonal fluctuations. Especially,
women migraine type is correlated with menstruation periods. In general, the mechanism, when we
experienced migraine is simple. Specific nerves localized in part of the head send pain signals to the
brain. Those signals release inflammatory chemicals into the bloodstream & to the nerves. An interrupted balance of chemicals in the brainstem causes the spectrum of inflammatory reactions. Activation of
mechanisms leads the brain to release pain-producing inflammatory substances. It happens around
head nerves and blood vessels. Scientists are not sure why the brain launch this system.
MIGRAIN information
Aura symptoms:
• Open eyes disturbances
• Tingling and numbness
• Temporary loss of vision
• Weakness experienced in part of the body
• Changes in speech (tempo, voice pitch)
What do migraine symptoms look like?
• Headache on one side of the head.
• Nausea (the most common characteristic associated)
• Blur vision or visual disturbances (patients with aura)
• Vomiting (or abdominal pain, younger children’s)
• Light sensitivity (photophobia)
• Sensitivity to noise, odours (second smoke cigarette)
• Pale skin colour (pallor)
Migraine triggers:
• Medications. Vasodilators, oral contraceptives.
• Wine.
• Stress inducing environment or stress in general.
• Interruption of sleeping or meal routines.
• Epileptic illumination, noise, odours, cigarette smoke
• High-intensity physical endurance.
• Weather conditions. Barometric air pressure can induce migraine.
• Foods. Especially aged cheeses and processed foods.
• Other. Periods (menstruation)
When to seek further medical advice?
Migraines are often not diagnosed properly. If headaches impede your everyday activities then you
should consider a consultation with GP to get a proper diagnose. For those who have a previous history
of headaches or are reliant on over-the-counter medications, the best advice is to start keeping a record
of migraine attacks. The migraine journal should contain the frequency of attacks and actions we conduct to ease the pain. That kind of journal will be helpful to you and your physician. Even you previously
have a history of headaches, but the patterns of attack changed you should look for medical attention.
How to treat migraine:
Chronic migraine headaches can not be simply cured. In contrast, the severity of pain may be decreased. Desirable relief is approachable. It may be done by changing individual habits. Simple avoidance of common triggers may be helpful. If it is not, there are also more reliable protocols. Two additional types of treatment approaches exist. Abortive and preventive medication. Healthcare professionals
will provide you with an accurate diagnosis and prescription. Simple lifestyle modifications may help. If
it’s not and those interventions are not sufficient. Therefore, medication may be an appropriate way to
prevent or ease upcoming pain. If we are convinced to visit the physician it will be very helpful to bring
the migraine journal with us. Your GP based on included information will choose the most appropriate
medication. There is a whole class of medicine used to treat migraine. The doctor may choose from a
wide group of them; triptan, anti-migraine medications, analgesics, anti-emetics, prophylactic medications. In general, if avoidance of migraine triggers does not help, drugs will do! Two main approaches
with the implementation of medication are used one is abortive medication and the second is preventive
medication.
Abortive medication. Is treatment aimed to ease upcoming or already experienced migraine? Is the
most effective when a patient will use e drug straight after the signing of migraine. Medication should
abort the upcoming headache process by decreasing other symptoms. It may reduce many symptoms
as; pain, light sensitivity, and nausea. The mechanism of work for that medication aims to constrict blood
vessels and bring them to baseline level. In addition, it helps to relieve out the throbbing pain. Abortive
medication is appropriate for patients with aura and those are most effective.
Preventive medication. Are ordinated by the physician when patients’ headaches are severe and interrupt everyday activities. This approach aims to reduce the frequency and ease the negative impact of
migraines on patient life. Those medications are usually prescribed when migraine headaches occurred
four or more times per month. Drugs should be taken daily to prevent upcoming migraines.
Resources further information


Further information
This brochure aims to provide the most updated information about migraine.
The leaflet is addressed to the general public and lays a piece of information
in an easy-to-digest form. On the other hand, it cannot be treated as medical
advice. If you discover described symptoms and your headaches pain persists.
Please book an appointment to see your doctor. You can help yourself and your
doctor if you decide to cultivate the habit of recording every attack in a migraine
diary. For more information scan the QR codes below to get more reliable information.

  • References:
  • https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/headache-disorders
  • World Health -Organisation Headache disorders
  • https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/migraine/
  • National Health Service – Overview Migraine
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560787/
  • Scientific Migraine Compedium – Migraine Headache
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