a) Humanistic Theory
It is the theory lay that each individual have necessary resources to met all needs. All of people can live healthy and functional live. All of problems are aftermath of restricted or unavailable tools to resolve particular issue. From counselling point of view we may list counselling therapies as:
- positive psychology
14 b) Psychodynamic Theory
Psychodynamic theory state that all psychological issues occurred as a result from previous or current influences. Most of those influences are unconscious and may arise as a result of past events.
The list of psychodynamic theory may include:
- Adlerian therapy
- Object relations therapy
- Attachment therapy
The protoplast of the most famous psychological approaches called psychoanalysis was Sigmund Freud. That scientist proposed the idea that past events and not articulated desires have a significant impact on individuals. Sigmund Freud rises how crucial importance early childhood experiences may have to individuals. In Freud’s methods important role is put on memory if an individual has a chance to recall an event from memory and face it as an aadolescent adult there is a chance to overcome the circumstances that the venue may cause. Freud identifies in our personality three main components; id, ego, superego. Based on this nomenclature we can easily describe all human needs desires and motivations. Id drives the primary impulses as; sex, aggression, and operate unconsciously. Id is driven by current basic desires and aims to get gratification to basic needs as soon as it possible. The ego is the mediator between Id and the conscious mind. Ego operates on the conscious mind and is a state of mind we experience every day. Superego operates on the preconscious level and is constitution and conduct for moral behaviors. Based on those constrain we may split human personality into; conscious, preconscious and into the unconscious. All human behaviors maybe attach to one of those three groups.
According to the psychodynamic theory, we can list a few main defense mechanisms build into our psychics.
Denial may be described as a defense mechanism blocking undesired thoughts and beliefs. The usual denial mechanism tries to secure us against negative feelings and emotions.
Distortion is a mechanism to believe or not to. No matter the real outcome of believes patient can be convinced about their own right or not. Distortion is a common feature in cases like bulimia and anorexia when images of patients do not much desired outcome.
Repression may be described as blockage of unwanted thoughts from the conscious thinking process. However, repression is an unconscious process. The patient is unaware that repressed thoughts or feelings. It is a common factor diagnosed when experienced emotion too painful to cope with.
Suppression is an active process where the individual is conscious about negative emotion of feeling but deliberately try to forget them or transfer attention to not think about particular occurrences.
Projection is the most interesting mechanism when an individual accuses another person of having thoughts or feelings. The patient project to other person’s own thought process and is convinced that the judgment is correct. Projection blur patient reality to the instance that it may be very difficult to recognize the objective reality. The false projections may abuse the process of learning thus, patients do not proceed with any adjustments to their behavior.
Dissociation is a mechanism of cutting out the individual from the previous traumatic event. People who experienced it try to secure their conscious minds from too much stress. In modern pharmacological approach to treat PTSD ketamine may be used as a substance to alter the state of the patient’s mind and induce dissociation.
Displacement is a mechanism when an individual realize negative impulses to object or people not associated with the cause.
Sublimation is a thought process when an individual changes the context of an event from a negative one to more positive. This defense mechanism was developed to counteract unpleasant feelings.
In addition, we must credit brilliant scientist Carl Jung who brings to science the concept of archetypes. Those ancient archetypes influence our thought processes and behaviour and are embodied in language and culture. Jung labeled archetypes as; seld, persona, shadow & anima. Those types of archetypes possess universal futures and psychodynamic counsellor based on those may create profiles of the individual and therefore may be used as a therapeutical approach.
14 c) Cognitive Behavioural Theory
The therapy based on this approach is based on assumption that thoughts and behaviors may be reconditioned. Therefore, the thought process may be changed and reinforced based on classic Pavlovian constraints. This method teaches individuals how to take the leading role in a situation and how to manage the emotion involved. The mentor role may be done by counselling customers and equip in the necessary skills need to cope with occurrences.
Cognitive based therapies may include protocols as:
rational emotive behaviour therapy
cognitive behavior therapy