14 c) Cognitive Behavioural Theory

CBT have many forms probably the best known in society of psychologist is rational emotive behaviour therapy developed by psychologist Albert Ellis. On the other hand, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy was developed by Dr Aaron Beck. But before we dive deep into CBT let’s start from Ellis Rational Emotive Behaviour

Therapy (REBT). This was the early form of CBT aimed to teach individuals problem-solving techniques and learn them how to identify challenges and therefore, change and replace belief systems through goal setting. Modern science provides us with more information about brain neuroscience. This technique aims to explore and readjust subjective dopamine expenditure. Thus, in the human body, we have one system to pursue goals and dopamine is a fuel to move and crave. According to Daniel Z ‘The Molecule of More’ 2018. In 1957 when Ellis developed the ABC technique of irrational beliefs those kinds of knowledge were not available yet. But let’s go back to ABC.

A = Activating event ( situation triggered and fueled negative thoughts)

B = Beliefs (is a spectrum of emotion and thoughts associated with the negative situations)

C = Consequences (all array of negative feelings and dysfunctional behaviours or belives that are activated and caused by event)

Historical data and legacy Albert Ellis brought to psychology are enormous. In contrast, till today nobody reviewed his work from a typical neurotransmitters perspective. If somebody will dop we will have a chance to develop better therapeutic approaches.

In 1960 candles in a dark psychological tunnel start to light up. Beck, came up with the idea of summarisation and a combination of behavioural and cognitive theory. CBT is based on belief that what we perceive about the situation can impact the way how we finally feel and react.

CBT explore three main layers of thinking.

1. Negative automatic Thoughts (NAT)

2. Underlying assumptions (usual imprint by environmental condition like culture)

3. Core beliefs (Design and imprinted by family usually in early childhood)

CBT is based on the present rather than on the past as in some other therapists. Sessions are focused on the individual role of the counsellor is to recognise and understand the individual thinking processes. It is usually done by Socratic questioning. Socratic questions are nothing new are just a series of open question help to open individuals and explore subjects.

CBT sessions aim to break individual problems into manageable pieces. Breaking problem down is usually done by five separated areas:

• situations

• thoughts

• emotions

• physical feelings

• actions

Counsellors among individuals explore and analyse negative thoughts and beliefs. Careful attention is put on those feelings manufacturing negative or destructive behaviours. Those negative thoughts and beliefs should be challenged to reduce or eliminate their negative impact. Counsellors armed with tools help individuals to clarify tests and examine underpinned negative thoughts. It is a collaborative process where both came to conclusion and an appropriate action plan may be created and implemented. The role of the counsellor is to elevate individual conscious awareness and break old thinking patterns. CBT should help patients to learn how to calm their minds. A therapist can learn individual coping tools to challenge negative thinking on daily basis.

CBT have also some counterintuitive approaches. One of them is postpone worry. IN that kind of session customers spend 30 min of time deliberately worrying for this period of time. Then 23.5hours of the day should be free of any worry. On the other hand, that technique can not be used with some highly depressed individual.

CBT therapeutic process always include stages:

• psychological assessment

• re-conceptualisation

• skills acquisition

• application training

• generalisation

• post-treatment assessment

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